Approaches to Abnormalities

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  • Created by: Alanah B
  • Created on: 15-05-14 20:01
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DEFINITION Emphasises biological Psychological disorders are Cognitive dysfunction- faulty Based on the principles of
processes- an abnormality caused by emotional or distorted thinking learning- an abnormality is a
will have a physical cause of problems in the unconscious underpins an abnormality result of learning
some sort mind maladaptive and
dysfunctional behaviour
FEATURES Genetic factors- The conscious- the small Beck's cognitive triad- Classical conditioning-
Family, twin studies, and amount of mental activity Depressed people may Learning to associate a
adoption studies can be we know about have a negative view of the neutral stimulus with an
used to establish The preconscious- things world, themselves, or the automatic response
concordance rates we could be aware of if we future Operant conditioning-
Biochemistry - tried Ellis's ABC model- Positive reinforcement-
These abnormalities may be The unconscious- things Ellis suggested that (A) an receiving rewards for a
caused by chemical that we are unaware of and action is affected by (B) an correct action
malfunctions in the brain cannot become aware of individual's beliefs which Negative reinforcement-
Neuroanatomy- ID-develops first and is results in (C) a consequence Experiencing negative
Abnormalities are caused by based on the pleasure If beliefs are subject to consequences to deter from
the way in which the brain is principle- innate drive for cognitive biases (in the same wrong doing
structure and the variations physical satisfaction/instant way as Becks) then they can Social learning theory-
in size gratification cause irrational thinking Abnormalities may develop
Ego- conscious part of our which may produce by observing modelling
mind and the reality undesirable behaviours roles and imitating them-
principle- tries to balance this learnt behaviour then
the ID and the superego becomes ingrained with no
Superego- the morality recollection of learning it
principle- our conscious
which is influenced by social
ideas formed by our parents
and society

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RESEARCH AND Genetic factors- ID too strong- Someone suffering from Classical conditioning-
EXAMPLES Masterson and Davies state Selfish, out of control, could OCD believes that if they do A stimulus- response bond is
that Family studies show that become psychopathic not switch the light on and created for example weight
the relatives of Superego too strong- off 20 times every time they phobia is created when
Schizophrenics are 18 times Strict, anxious, obsessive, leave the room, a family anxiety is associated with
more likely to…read more

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WEAKNESSES The analogy (similarity) to Does not give enough Cause and effect are not They only investigate what is
Physical illness is limited- consideration to adult clear- the thoughts could be observable and measurable,
mental illness is not the experiences and can be a cause of the disorder, but e.g.…read more


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