Answers for Review Questions on Core Chemistry (covers entire AQA specification)

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  • Created on: 15-01-13 17:15
Preview of Answers for Review Questions on Core Chemistry (covers entire AQA specification)

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Core Chemistry
END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS (ANSWERS)
Chapter 1 (The Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry)
1 100
2 As its chemical symbol
3 Protons, neutrons, electrons
4 Protons: +1, neutrons: 0, electrons: 1
5 Because there is an equal number of protons and electrons the charges cancel each
other out
6 They have the same number of protons
7 The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom of the element
8
9 (i) They have the same number of electrons in their outer shell
(ii) Very vigorously
10 We can see how many atoms of a substance are involved in the reaction
Word equations can become very complicated when a lot of substances are involved
Scientists can communicate internationally whatever language they speak
11 No atoms are created or lost during a reaction
Atoms are only rearranged during a reaction

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Core Chemistry
END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS (ANSWERS)
Chapter 2 (Limestone and Building Materials)
1 e.g. Building material
2 CaO (calcium oxide), CO2 (carbon dioxide)
3 They all belong to the same group as calcium (Group 2)
4 (i) Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2
(ii) To neutralise acids (e.g.…read more

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Core Chemistry
END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS (ANSWERS)
Chapter 3 (Metals and their Uses)
1 A rock containing enough of a metal for it to be economically worth extracting
2 It may be concentrated
3 It is very unreactive
It is not reactive enough to react with oxygen and be found in its ore as an oxide
4 Carbon is added in a reduction reaction to react with the oxide forming the metal and
carbon dioxide
e.g.…read more

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Core Chemistry
END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS (ANSWERS)
Chapter 4 (Crude Oil)
1 CnH2n+2
2
3 Fractional distillation ­ crude oil is: vaporised fed into the bottom of the fractionating
column temperatures cool going up the column fractions condense at different
temperature fractions with smaller hydrocarbon chains exit near the top fractions
condense at different temperatures so are separated
4 Low viscosity
High flammability
Low boiling point
5 Carbon dioxide
Sulfur dioxide
Nitrous oxides
Water vapour
Carbon monoxide
6 Carbon and hydrogen are oxidised
7 (i)…read more

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Core Chemistry
END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS (ANSWERS)
Chapter 5 (Other Useful Substances from Crude Oil)
1 (i) Vaporised crude oil is passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam in a steel vessel
(ii) Thermal decomposition
2 C2H2n
3
4 It becomes colourless
5 To produce shorter hydrocarbon chains which are more useful as fuels
6 (i) Each monomers breaks its double bond and joins up with other monomers to form a
long chain of monomers, called a polymer
(ii) Polymerisation
(iii) Alkanes have…read more

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Core Chemistry
END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS (ANSWERS)
Chapter 6 (Plant Oils and their Uses)
1 Crushing: plants are crushed and the oil is retrieved after removing water and impurities
distillation: plants are boiled in water and when the vapour is condensed the oil separates
from the water
2 Contain essential nutrients, are able to produce a lot of energy
3 Advantages:
Higher boiling point so food cooks at higher temperatures, meaning molecules gain
kinetic energy and move faster so the food cooks faster
Gives food…read more

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Core Chemistry
END OF CHAPTER QUESTIONS (ANSWERS)
Chapter 7 (Changes in Earth and its Atmosphere)
1
2 Crust and upper mantle / lithosphere
3 Radioactive decay in the core heats up mantle (which is mostly solid but still able to
move) convection currents are created which cause molten minerals in the mantle to
expand and become less dense, floating to the surface of the Earth with tectonic plates
cooler minerals sink and replace them tectonic plates then move at a rate of a few
centimetres…read more

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