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Page 1

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Core Chemistry
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Chapter 1 (The Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry)

1 100
2 As its chemical symbol
3 Protons, neutrons, electrons
4 Protons: +1, neutrons: 0, electrons: 1
5 Because there is an equal number of protons and electrons the charges cancel each
other out
6…

Page 2

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Core Chemistry
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Chapter 2 (Limestone and Building Materials)

1 e.g. Building material
2 CaO (calcium oxide), CO2 (carbon dioxide)
3 They all belong to the same group as calcium (Group 2)
4 (i) Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2
(ii) To neutralise acids (e.g. acidic flue gases from…

Page 3

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Core Chemistry
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Chapter 3 (Metals and their Uses)

1 A rock containing enough of a metal for it to be economically worth extracting
2 It may be concentrated
3 It is very unreactive
It is not reactive enough to react with oxygen and be found…

Page 4

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Core Chemistry
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Chapter 4 (Crude Oil)

1 CnH2n+2
2




3 Fractional distillation ­ crude oil is: vaporised fed into the bottom of the fractionating
column temperatures cool going up the column fractions condense at different
temperature fractions with smaller hydrocarbon chains exit near the top…

Page 5

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Core Chemistry
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Chapter 5 (Other Useful Substances from Crude Oil)

1 (i) Vaporised crude oil is passed over a hot catalyst or mixed with steam in a steel vessel
(ii) Thermal decomposition
2 C2H2n
3




4 It becomes colourless
5 To produce shorter hydrocarbon chains…

Page 6

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Core Chemistry
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Chapter 6 (Plant Oils and their Uses)

1 Crushing: plants are crushed and the oil is retrieved after removing water and impurities
distillation: plants are boiled in water and when the vapour is condensed the oil separates
from the water
2 Contain essential…

Page 7

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Core Chemistry
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Chapter 7 (Changes in Earth and its Atmosphere)

1




2 Crust and upper mantle / lithosphere
3 Radioactive decay in the core heats up mantle (which is mostly solid but still able to
move) convection currents are created which cause molten minerals in…

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