First 200 words of the document:
Ann Oakley (1981) argues that children are socialised into their gender
roles and hence in their gender identities by the family in four ways. The first of these ways is
Manipulation. This consists of parents (or other family members) encouraging
behaviour that is seen as the norm for the child's
gender and discouraging behaviour that is not considered the norm e.g. congratulating a boy
for completing an obstacle course but discouraging a girl from attempting the obstacle course. The
second method described by Oakley isCanalisation. This comprises of parents channelling
the child's interests into activities that are considered the
norm for their gender e.g. encouraging girls to do ballet and encouraging boys to play football.
The third of Oakley's methods was Verbal Appellations. This involves giving
children nicknames or pet names that are appropriate
for their gender e.g. little angel for girls and little monster for boys. The final of Oakley's
methods was Different Activities. Pushing boys towards
doing sports whereas trying to turn girls against them
arguing that it it is not a good sport for them.