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Page 1

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Module 2 ­ Exchange and transport
I
n or
der t
o s
u r
vive,
l
ivi
ng cel
ls
need a
sup pl
y of
oxygen
and nut
ri
ent
s.
In
singl
e cel
l
and
smal
l
or
ganisms t
hese ma t
eri
als
can…

Page 2

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Inhalation
Di
aphragm cont
racts
to
become
fl
att
er
a nd
pushes
ribs
down
Ext
ernal
i
nter
costal
muscles
contr
act
to
rai
se r
ibs
Vol
ume
of
chest
cavit
y i
ncreases
Pr
essure
in
chest
cavit
y dr
ops bel
ow atmospheri
c pr
essure…

Page 3

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E nsures
C oncent
rat
ion of
oxygen
is
higher
i
n al
veol
i
than
in
blood
Removes
air
cont
acti
ng CO 2

E nsures
concentr
ati
on of CO2 i
s hi
gher
i
n t
he bl
ood t
han i
n al
veol
i

Trachea…

Page 4

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Ast
hma
can
be caused
by t
he const
ri
cti
on
of
the
ai
rways
due
to
an al
ler
gic
react
ion
to
somethi
ng i
n
t
he ai
r.


El
asti
c Th e smo oth
mu scl
e cann ot
r
everse
the
e ff…

Page 5

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Thi
s i
s necessary
as when a
person
breaths
in and
o ut
over
a
p er
iod of
t
ime t
he l
evel
of
car
bo n
dioxi
de i
ncreases
dangerousl
y.
Usi
n g
soda l
ime me ans
that
t
he l
evel
of…

Page 6

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An
examp l
e i
s f
ish
They
are
less
acti
ve t
ha n
ma mma ls
so t
his
eff
ici
ent
but
T he bl
ood
pressure
is
reduced as
blood passes
thr
ough the
ti
ny capi
ll
ari
e s
of
the
gil
ls…

Page 7

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Fi
sh

H eartarter
iesg i
l
lsv einsbo dy
ti
ssuev ei
nsh ear
t
T her
e must be
exchange
sur
faces
at
the
gil
l
s and
the
bod y
ti
ssue
to
all
ow
mater
ial
s t
o be
exchanged
between bl
ood
and t…

Page 8

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At
ri
a
Mu scl
es are
very t
hin
D o not
ne ed
to cr
eate much pressur
e
F uncti
on
is
to
pu sh
blood i
nto
ventri
cl
e s
Ri
ght
ventri
cle
T hi
cker
than wall
s of
atr
ia
E nab…

Page 9

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How valves work
At
ri
oven t
ricular
val
v e s
P r
essu re
in ventricl
es drops
be l
ow
pressure
in
a t
ri
a af
ter
ventri
cular

w al
ls
co ntr
a ct
and r
eco i
l

T h i
s cause…

Page 10

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I f
t
h e
contract
ion
o f
t
he chamb ers
are not
synchronized
then i
t
can cause i
neff
ici
ent

pump ing
(fi
bri
ll
ati
on)
T h e
heart
nee ds
a me chani
sm t
hat
ca n
coordinat
e
the
con…

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