mr barnes term 1,2

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  • Biology Mr Barnes.
    • gaseous exchange
      • Good exchange surfaces: large surface area, thin barrier, concentration maintenance.
      • higher surface area to volume ratio, the better the exchange.
      • Concentration gradient is the difference in concentration between two areas.
    • Cells
      • Squamous epithelial cells
      • cuboidal epithelial cells
      • ciliated epithelium
        • Fallopian tube
        • larynx
        • hair like
        • have lots of mitochondria
          • for aerobic respiration.
      • Goblet cells and glandular tissue.
        • under epithelium
        • secrete mucus
        • have lots of rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus
    • transport in plants.
      • need transport system to spread nutrients, get water from roots to leaves.
      • XYLEM: Transports water from roots to leaves.
        • contains xylem and parenchyma cells
        • contain pits
      • PHLOEM: transports sugars up/down the stem.
      • meristem: part of plant where cells are activly dividing.
      • endodermis: outer layer of the stele in a aplant root.
      • SYMPLAST PATHWAY: the living parts of cells- the cytoplasm
      • APOPLAST PATHWAY: the dead parts of the cell- cell walls
    • Animal and plants get their energy from respiration.
      • a process that breaks down glucose to get energy.
        • the breakdown of glucose is controlled by specail biological molecules called enzymes
      • Animals and plants can breakdown alpha glucose but not beta glucose
    • Glycogen: animal starch.
      • shorter chains than amylose and many branches from 1,6 glycosidic bonds
      • stored in liver and muscles
      • branches mean it is easier to hydrolyse to get glucose for respiration


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