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Phonology and CLA
Term Addition Examples
Deletion Omitting the final Do(g), cu(p)
consonant in words.…read more

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Lexis and CLA
Once children can produce sounds effectively they can use these skills to form
`real' words that others can recognise.
By the first-word stage (12 months) they have already contracted their sounds to
those of their main language.
Initially proto-words have meaning for the child and their carers, so a child needs
to acquire the vocabulary which will help them be understood by a wider audience.
After vocabulary building, a child needs to learn the semantics of words to link
objects and ideas.…read more

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Mismatch statements One word sentences that E.g- Saying duck when
appears quite abstract. A looking at an empty pond
child makes a statement
about one object to
Jean Aitchison ­ Connects children's lexical and semantic development.
Type Description
Labelling Linking words to objects and
understanding they can be labelled.
Packaging Exploring labels and what they can apply,
through over and under extension
occurring to understand the range of
Network-building Making connections between words,
understanding similarities and opposites in
meanings ­ synonyms, antonyms.…read more

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Experiment with language by adding prefixes and suffixes to make up words and
to convert words from one word class to another (derivational morphology)
Stage Descriptors Grammatical constructions
Holophrastic One word utterance
Two-word Two words combined to Subject + Verb
create simple syntactical Verb + Object
Telegraphic Three or more words joined Subject + Verb + Object
in increasingly complex and Subject + Verb + Complement
accurate orders Subject + Verb + Adverbial
Post ­telegraphic Increasing awareness of Instead of saying `runned' using
grammatical…read more

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Utterances are similar to the style and construction of a telegram in which the
function words are left out but content words are retained.
Early in the stage verb inflections, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, determiners are all
Key developments take place including the construction of questions, negatives
and pronouns.
Questions are a feature in early speech but in the one and two word stage these
are formed by rising intonation alone.…read more

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I am not
Pronouns can be difficult words to use accurately, as they express many things the
person, the subject/object positioning with an utterance, a number, gender and
Ursula Bellugi also found 3 stages to this:
1.) Child uses their own name (tom play)
2.) The child recognises the I/me pronouns and these are used in different places
within a sentence (I play toy, me do that)
3.…read more

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Children have to go through the process of applying rules and using exceptions to
the application of inflections and changing of tense.
Stages of linguistic development
Jean Piaget (lexis)
Stage Age (years)
Sensorimotor Up to 2 The child experiences the
physical world through the
senses and begins
classifying the things in it;
lexical choices, when they
appear, tend to be concrete
rather than abstract.
Object permanence
develops ­ the concept
that an object exists when
out of sight.…read more

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Post- telegraphic (36+ months) More grammatically complex combinations
A child can be in more than one stage of development
Functions of child language
development ­ Pragmatics and CLA
John Dore
Focused more on speech acts as individual utterances
Function Description
Labelling Simply naming or identifying a person, object
or experience
Repeating Echoing something spoken by an adult
Answering Giving a direct response to an utterance,
from another speaker
Requesting action Demanding food, drink, toy, assistance etc
Calling Attracting attention by shouting
Greeting Self evident…read more


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