All the Key Sociologists/Claims

Every sociologist and their claims you need to know for the exam. 

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Topic One: Ownership and Control
Bagdikian `Lords of the Global Village - 86% of national papers controlled by just 4
companies e.g. Daily Mail and General Trust/News international.
Morely Called the `preferred ideology' that the ideology mass producers prefer
audiences to infer.
Milliband The media create a `climate of conformity'
Philo Found coverage of banking crisis and found focused on view of 3 main political
parties ­ not the cause.
Curran and Seaton R.Murdock admitted editorial control over Iraq war coverage.
Former Sun Editor Stated editors begin to think `what would Rupert think'.
Topic Two: Globalisation and Popular Culture
Harvey Candyfloss Culture ­ Appeals to everyone but no one in particular.
Giddings Video games bring together elements of high culture ­ art/architecture/Classical music.
Marcuse Suggests media generated adverts create a form of `social repression' ­ passive
acceptance and undermining revolutionary action.
Strinati Points to a wider diversity of content critically selected and responded to.
Livingstone TV soaps address and inform public on controversial issues e.g. domestic abuse/
Flew Evo. of media tech. helped developed pop. culture
Kellener Media produces global images of lifestyles which evolve into everyday life ­ people form
identities upon.
Sklair Media blur the difference between info. ­ entertainment ­ promotion | Sell values and
lifestyles with products
Fenton `Global' ­ not universal ­ disguises the domination of western culture
Topic Three: Social Construction of News
Bagdikian Suggests news presented to avoid offending advertisers.
Barnett and To attract wide audience must appeal to everyone ­ offend no one.
GMG News is a sequence of socially manufactured messages provided within the context of the
dominant ideology of society
Cohen Suggests media tells audiences what to think about .
Philo banking crisis ­ no mention or revolt of system which caused crisis |Defines what
audiences should and shouldn't be interested in.
McRobbie New media platforms and accountability changed reaction ­ moral panics rare.
Zakir Churnalism Churned' out second-hand news ­ not validated research.
Davies Found only 12% of stories across 5 major newspapers generated by reporters | 80% news
agencies or public relations industry.
Herman and Mainstream media propaganda system for elite interests ­ those who make news ­ those
Chomsky who have the power to define it.
Edwards and Cromwell `Cheerleaders' of government ­ reject those who reject them.
Topic Four: Representations in the Media
Gauntlett People reject representations but they become reality when media is only source.
Cohen Suggests youth are identifiable group for Scapegoating ­ Common enemy | often referred
to as `hoodies' or `thugs'.
Semigin London agencies wary of using older models ­ alienate younger audience.
Brooker Old people `culturally obsolete'.
Jones M/C values rep. as norm/consensus | Concerns of well off important to majority

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Cottle White audiences secure identity in contrast of culture.
Abercrombie Eastenders ­ Ems appears as routine characters adopting lifestyle.
Tebbel Promoted size 16 models | audiences liked | advertisers withdrew ­ `unhealthy'.
McRobbie Post-Modern society ­ more flexibility.
Gauntlett Growing expectation women and men should be treated equally ­ reflected in the media.
Gauntlett New choice to construct identity ­ `emo boy' and `new man' both embrace femininity.
Shakespear Stereotype of `normal' generates disabled logo ­ E.g.…read more

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McNair Top down control replaced with `cultural chaos' | More diversity | Balance of power shifted |
undermined influence of media owners.
Philo Agenda setting tells us what not to think about however ­ Cit. J shapes trad. news agendas
| Online reports potentially viewed by huge audiences ­ canny afford to be ignored by trad.
Bivins However elite groups adapting ­ radical critiques rare on mainstream. despite being popular
online.…read more


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