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The Basics
· Unsaturated hydrocarbon
· CnH2n
· Van De Waals forces are the only intermolecular force that acts
between alkenes
· Melting and boiling points are similar to alkanes
· Not soluble in water because they are non polar
· Alkenes are more reactive compared to alkanes due to the double
bond being attacked by electrophile
· The main reaction alkenes undergo is electrophilic addition reactions…read more

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Why alkenes cannot rotate?
· Alkenes cannot rotate around the double bond
· There is a p orbital with a single electron on each carbon
· The 2 orbitals overlap forming one
· There is a cloud of electrons above and below the single bond
· This is called a orbital meaning the alkene cannot rotate…read more

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Alkene Isomerism
· Alkenes with 3 or more carbons · Geometrical Isomerism
can form 3 types of isomers · Alkyl groups on the same side=Z
· Chain
· Positional- double bond changes
isomerism/ cis isomerism
position · Alkyl groups on opposite sides=
· Geometrical- form of E isomerism/ trans isomerism
· Stereoisomers have the same · E-Z Isomerism
structural formula however they are
arranged differently in space…read more

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E-Z Isomerism
· Based on atomic numbers Z E
· E.g.
· Cl= 17
· Br=35
· F=9
· Always look at the atoms with the 1st and 2nd highest atomic number
· Br and Cl are the highest so whether its an E or Z isomer depends on
them not F…read more

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Alkene Reactions
· Combustion- will burn in air however alkenes have more useful purposes
· Electrophilic Addition
1. Electrophile(positive ion) attracted to high electron density in the double
2. Positive electrophile gains a pair of electrons from the double bond
3. Positive ion/carbocation is form in the original alkene
4. Negative ion bonds with carbocation…read more

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