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Chemistry of Alcohols
[email protected]…read more

Slide 2

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Introduction--Structure & Bonding
· An alcohol is an organic compound in which an ­OH group is bonded to
a saturated carbon atom.
· A saturated carbon atom is a carbon atom that is bonded to four other
· The ­OH group, the functional group that is characteristic of an
alcohol, is called a hydroxyl group. A hydroxyl group is the ­OH
functional group.…read more

Slide 3

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Introduction--Structure & Bonding
· The oxygen atom in alcohols is sp3 hybridized.
· Alcohols have a bent shape like that in H2O.
· The bond angle around the O atom in an alcohol is similar to the
tetrahedral bond angle of 109.5°.
· Because the O atom is much more electronegative than carbon or
hydrogen, the C--O and O--H bonds are all polar.…read more

Slide 4

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Nomenclature of Alcohols
IUPAC Rules for naming alcohols that contain a single hydroxyl group
· Rule 1: Name the longest carbon chain to which the hydroxyl group is
attached. The chain name is obtained by dropping the final -e from the
alkane name and adding the suffix -ol.
· Rule 2: Number the chain starting at the end nearest the hydroxyl
group, and use the appropriate number to indicate the position of the ­
OH group. (In numbering of the longest carbon chain, the hydroxyl
group has priority over double and triple bonds, as well as over alkyl,
cycloalkyl, and halogen substituents.)
· Rule 3: Name and locate any other substituents present.
· Rule 4: In alcohols where the ­OH group is attached to a carbon atom in
a ring, the hydroxyl group is assumed to be on carbon 1.…read more

Slide 5

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Nomenclature of Alcohols…read more

Slide 6

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Nomenclature of Alcohols
· When an OH group is bonded to a ring, the ring is numbered
beginning with the OH group.
· Because the functional group is at C1, the 1 is usually omitted from
the name.
· The ring is then numbered in a clockwise or counterclockwise fashion
to give the next substituent the lowest number.…read more

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