Additional Science C3- Basics of what you need to know

Key points for ocr

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  • Created on: 10-01-12 20:34
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Proton 1 +1
Neutron 1 0
Electron 0.0005 -1
Additional Science B3- The basics for OCR
1. Three particles found in an atom: electron, neutron and proton
2. Mass number-Total of protons and neutrons
Atomic number-Number of protons
3. Isotopes are different atomics forms of the same element, which have the same number of protons but different
number of neutrons
4. An element consists of one type of Atom only. Compounds are chemically bonded.
5. Each horizontal row of the periodic table is called a period. Groups of the periodic table: Group 1-Alkali metals, Group
7-Halogens and Group 8-Noble gases.
6. Ionic bonding-atoms lose or gain electrons to form charged particles (Ions) . Ions with opposite charges are then
strongly attracted to one another
7. Ionic structures have high melting point, due to the very strong chemical bond between all the ions.
8. Group 1 is the alkali metals, their outer shell all have ONE outer electron.
9. Reactions of alkali metals with water produces hydrogen gas
When Lithium, sodium or potassium are put in water, they react very vigorously.
They move to the surface, fizzing furiously, and producing hydrogen.
The reactivity with water increases down the group.
Sodium and potassium melt in the heat of the reaction. Potassium even catches fire, and burns with a lilac flame.
10. Two chemical properties of the alkali metals:
Alkali metal ions will give pretty coloured flames-the colour of the flames tells you which alkali metal is present
Lithium: Red Flame Sodium: Yellow/Orange flame Potassium: Lilac flame
1) Dip a wire loop into some hydrochloric acid to clean it,
2) Put the loop into a powdered sample of the compound to be tested, and then place the end in a blue Bunsen flame.
11. Electrolysis removes aluminum from its ore.


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