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Additional Science B3- The basics for OCR
1. Respiration in a cell happens in the Mitochondria
2. The functions of cells:-
The cell nucleus- contains genetic information that controls the activities of the cell
Cytoplasm -where chemical reactions happens. It contains enzymes that control these chemical reactions
Cell Membrane-Holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out
3. Three differences between plant and animal cells
Plant cells contain all the bits that animal cells have, plus a few extra:-
Rigid cell wall, Permanent Vacuole and Chloroplasts
4. A Gene is a section of DNA that `codes' for a particular protein.
5. What are proteins made of and what do we use them for:
Proteins are made up of chains of molecules called amino acids. Proteins are used for growth and repair of cells.
6. DNA fingerprinting can be used in forensic science, because DNA can be taken from hair, skin flakes and blood,
therefore DNA from a crime scene can be compared with the DNA taken from a suspect.
7. The name given to Biological catalysts is an enzyme
8. Diffusion is the passive movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area with lower
10. Two substances that diffuse through the placenta from the foetus to the mother is food and oxygen
12. Six things that blood plasma transports around the body:
Red and white blood cells, Water, Digested food products like glucose and amino acid, Carbon dioxide, Urea, Hormones
& Antibodies and antitoxins
13. How a red blood cell is adapted to its function:
They're small, they have a biconcave shape, they contain haemogoblin, they're flexible and they don't have a nucleus.
14. Three types of blood vessel that transport blood around the body: Arteries, Capillaries and Veins
15. The blood vessel that joins to the right ventricle of the heart and where does it take the blood:
Pulmonary artery-the deoxygenated blood moves through to the right ventricle which pumps it to the lungs.
16. The left ventricle has a thicker wall than the right ventricle, because it contains more muscle as it has to pump blood
around the whole body. In comparison to the right ventricle which only has to pump blood to the lungs
17. Donors must consider the following to whether someone is suitable donor for a heart transplant:
They need to be relatively young (under 45)-as the heart is fit and healthy
Tissues must be a close match to those of the patient, or the heart is likely to be rejected
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Body weight must be similar to the patient needing the transplant
18. Three advantages of being multi-cellular
You can be bigger-it means you can travel further, get your nutrients in a variety of different ways, fewer things can eat
or squash you
Allows for cell differentiation- different types of cells that do different jobs.
Can be more complex they can have specialsied organs, different shapes and behavior
19. The type of cell division that produces new cells to repair damaged tissues: mitosis
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It also helps to make sure all the seeds in the batch
germinate at the same time.
28. Two things that increase the rate of mutation if you are exposed to them:
Ionising radiation, including x-rays and ultraviolet light. The greater the radiation, the greater chance of mutation
Certain chemicals which are known to cause mutations. Such chemicals are called mutagens. Cigarette smoke contains