PSYA4- expalnations for gambling

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  • Explanations for problem gambling
    • problem gambling- mild to moderate problems associated with gambling behaviour
      • individuals often start out with social to frequent gambling which turns into problem and pathological gambling
    • pathological gambling- term used to describe a diagnosable psychiatric disorder for extreme gambling disorder
    • to be diagnosed with gambling by the DSM-IV-TR an individual must display at least 5 characteristics
      • these include- a preoccupation with gambling, the need to gamble with increasing amount of money to get same effect, and repeated unsuccessful efforts to quit
    • 68% of the UK population gamble, mainly on the lottery, but the rates of problem gambling was only 0.6% according to the DSM-IV screen. most people dabble in gambling but don't addict
    • biological factors
      • Eisen, Lin, and Lyons- There is evidence from twin studies to support the idea of a genetic vulnerability to pathological gambling
        • Comings- suggested that the genetic process involves dopamine and seratonin
      • Shinohara et al- found that certain neurotransmitter levels rise in gamblers after a winning streak- this high is what motivates people to gamble
        • rapid levels of dopamine and noradrenaline have been found in  people after gambling and in pathological gamblers, in the stage before gambling
          • Meyer et al- compared a group of problem gamblers during gambling and during a card game not for money. found increased secretion of cortisol and increased heart rate in gambling condition
      • stopping gambling produces the same withdrawal symptoms as stopping drugs
        • Rosenthal et al- over 60% of gamblers reported physical side effect during withdrawal- some even reported worse side effects than the control group in withdrawal from drugs
      • cavedini et al- found link between frontal lobe dysfunction and problem gambling
        • Regard et al- high rates of EEG abnormalities linked to problem gambling
    • sociocultural factors
      • it has been found that those who have greater access to gambling are more likely to become problem gamblers
        • Landoucer et al- looked at gambling patterns in different countries and found gambling rates increased as availability of gambling increased
          • a further study In Australia found different results
      • introduction of the national lottery concern grew that gambling problems would become widespread- however only 57% of the population play it
      • alcohol is thought to increase gambling behaviour however there is inconsistent evidence for this
        • Pols and Hawks- young game machine players have shown to persist much longer after initial loss when drinking alcohol
    • psychological factors
      • Carlton and Monowicz- there is a higher rate of childhood ADHD reported in adults with pathological gambling than in the whole population
        • those with ADHD are very impulsive and don't rationalise their actions which is why they focus so much on the current here and no and not the implications of their actions
      • Krueger et al-those who scored high on impulsivity measures show higher heart rate during gambling. also higher impulsivity ratings correlated with significantly with the severity of problem gambling,
      • operant conditioning encourages people to gamble by rewarding them with the buzz or high- they re-gamble to feel this again
        • doesn't explain why pathological gamblers continue In the face of heavy financial loss
      • cognitive processing is also important
        • Oei and Raylu- children's attitudes to gambling are influenced by the attitudes of their parents, particularly their fathers
        • delfabbro et al- 75% of game thoughts during gabling is usually irrational and encourages further risk taking
          • Tarrier and Schotte- found a relationship between frequency of irrational verbalisations and arousal
        • gamblers often report that they gamble to escape feeling depressed or a bad day
      • those who gamble are more impulsive as they are more likely to focus on the short term rewards of the money and 'buzz' then to rationalise their actions and think of the consequences of gambling their money away
    • Sharpe developed the biopsychosocial model which incorporates an interaction of all factors and helps explain how not one model is responsible for the development of gambling issues;
      • Nower et al also developed a biopsychosocial model and stated there are three distinct routes into gambling that incorporate all three models
    • Nower et al also developed a biopsychosocial model and stated there are three distinct routes into gambling that incorporate all three models


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