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The Sympathomedullary
Pathway
Immediate (acute) stressors arouse the AUTONOMIC
NERVOUS SYSTEM (aka. The ANS).
The ANS is divided into the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS
SYSTEM (aka. The SNS) and the PARASYMPATHETIC
NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The SNS arouses an animal to be ready for fight or flight.
The PNS returns the body to it's normal, relaxed state.
The SYMPATHETIC ADRENAL MEDULLARY SYSTEM
(aka. The SAM System) is activated at the same time as the
SNS.…read more

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THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS
SYSTEM
(THE SNS) -neurotransmitters
NORADRENALINE (aka. norepinephrine ) is a
neurotransmitter released by the SNS to
activate certain responses:
Increased heart rate
Increased blood pressure
Pupil dilation
Digestive system processes suppressed
Reproductive system processes suppressed…read more

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The SAM System - hormones
The SAM system alerts the body by releasing
the hormone ADRENALINE (aka. epinephrine)
into the bloodstream.
The adrenaline travels around the body and
prepares it for fight or flight
The SAM system is regulated by the SNS and
the adrenal medulla.…read more

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The Adrenal Medulla
The adrenal gland has two main parts- the
adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla
Neurones of the SNS travel to
the medulla so that when it is
activated it releases adrenaline
Increasing supply of oxygen and
glucose to the brain and muscles
Suppressing non-emergency bodily functions…read more

Slide 6

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The Parasympathetic Nervous
System
The PNS relaxes the body after the acute stressor
has passed.
It slows the heart rate and decreases blood
pressure...
And causes the digestive system start up
again.…read more

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