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Actus Reus:

Actus Reus is the physical element of a crime. It can consist of an act, as in Hill and Baxter (1958) when
court discussed examples of when the driver of a car would not be driving voluntarily. These included
being hit on the head with a stone and…

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Causation:

Causation occurs in result crimes, those that require an act which goes on to cause a specific result,
for example murder. Where the defendant, to be guilty, must not only have attacked their victim but
also caused the victim to die. Prosecution must show a causal link between action…

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Omissions:

The general rule regarding omissions is that failure to act will not amount to actus reus. A person is
not required to be a good samaritan. However, there are cases where an omission will amount to
actus reus. These include;

Under a contract, Pittwood (1902) the defendant was under…

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Strict Liability:

Some crimes are crimes of strict liability. These crimes do not require proof of mens rea. Another way
of describing them is to call them `no fault' offences. Almost all are created by statute, often
concerning road traffic offences or health and safety legislation.

An example of such…

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Transferred malice:

A defendant will be guilty if he has the mens rea and actus reus for a crime. If, by mistake, the
defendant causes harm to another individual who is not the intended victim the mens rea and actus
reus will be transferred to the ultimate victim.

In R…

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