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Definition 1: Deviation from social norms
Society develops rules as to what is 'normal'. This includes dress, speech and eating.
If this behaviour deviates/differs significantly, it is considered 'abnormal'.
E.g. wearing clothes in public is normal whereas wearing no clothes is abnormal.
Norms change over time (homosexuality);…

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The Biological Model

Main assumption: Psychological disorders are caused by changes in the body, usually the brain.

Genetics: Mental disorders are inherited from parent to offspring. Torrey believed that
schizophrenia is caused by a flu virus that is passed from mother to offspring during pregnancy,
and is activated during puberty…

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Highlights importance of childhood on Gender bias - the idea that men/male
emotional development thinking is superior and therefore women
were expected women to be unstable and
irrational (not applicable to modern times)
Abstract concepts
Therapy looks backwards - doesn't focus on
current problems
Involves blame and guilt
Developed theory…

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The Cognitive Model

Main assumption: Behaviour is a result of faulty thinking.

Computer: The brain is like a computer: the information is the input, the processing is thinking
and the output is behaviour
Schema: Packet of information related to an object or idea. E.g. normal schema of a dog: eat,…

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No evidence it improved specific symptoms
Caused patients to lose basic skills such as talking and ability to show emotion
Damage is irreversible and unpredictable

Electroconvulsive Therapy (E.C.T.)
Passes a small electric current through the brain to treat depression
Originally done by placing electrodes on either side of the head,…

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Requires less effort for the patient than some other treatments
Effective in 75% of cases of patients with phobias
May cause other symptoms in place of `cured' symptoms (although no proof of this)
Less effective with phobias that have an underlying evolutionary component (e.g. fear of
dangerous animals)



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