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Contents:- Products from Rocks
Atoms, elements and compounds
Still atoms, elements and compounds
Balancing equations
Limestone and it's uses
Decomposing carbonates
Quicklime, slaked lime and mortar
Quick summary test
Metals and it's uses
Extracting metals
Extra extracting metals
Alloys May I suggest you
Transition metals tick as you go along
whilst revising
Crude oil and fuels
Crude oil
Extra Crude oil…read more

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Atoms
Atoms, elements and compounds
Nucleus
Electrons
Atoms and elements are the building blocks of chemistry.
You see atoms are made up of electrons protons and
neutrons and of course a type of atom makes up an Atoms have small nucleus, the it is made up of
element. When elements react they create compounds. protons, neutrons and electrons.
Simples The proton has a positive charge (+)
Neutron has no charge (0)
And electron has a negative charge (-)
Molecules
There are about 100 different elements, they are shown on
the periodic table each group contains elements with
similar properties
Ok please try to
look past my ugly
attempt of a
Make sure to remember electron shell to
where the non-metals They swap and see that the
and metals are share electrons electrons
occupying the
energy shell(level)
is in fact the same
Atoms are all represented by chemical e.g. O stands for oxygen. You Also electros 2,8.1
as the mass
are not suppose to know all the chemical symbols at at least try to that occupy the number (the
remember the first 20 first energy is a number on top) see
In an atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of max of 2, the
protons so there is no overall charge for an atom. second shell
Atoms of a particular element have the same amount of protons holds a max of 8
however atoms of different elements have different number of and so on
protons…read more

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Still Atoms, elements and compounds
The periodic table includes
various elements. The Ok, now we have to learn about how elements react or bond
elements in the same (I hate this part) so when atoms join together they form
group have the same compounds. This can happen two ways
number of electrons in 1. Sharing (is caring) or covalent bonding
their highest energy level 2. Swapping (giving or taking)
(outer shells) for example Ok the first one (sharing) is done like this, on atom like
Carbon is in group 4 so it nitrogen is pretty lonely because their outer shell has 5
would naturally have 4 electrons (and we want a full shell of 8) so along comes 3
electrons on the last shell. hydrogens to help a nitrogen out thus creating NH3 or in
You don't have to know the other words Ammonia.
ins and outs of this but you The second one (swapping) is called ionic
are required to understand bonding, the process involves atoms losing or
it so my best advice is to gaining electrons. A great example is sodium
try to look over the first 20 (Na) giving away one of it's electrons so it can
(do it across) become positive, it gives it to chlorine (CI) and
thus CI becomes negative and an ionic bond
id formed. Easy peasy lemon squeezey
The elements in group 0 are
called noble gases, e.g. helium And remember folks no atoms are lost or made
the thing that is usually during a chemical reaction so the mass of the
associated with hem nice products is the same as the mass of the reactants
balloons that float to the ceiling.
They are unreactive because
their atoms have a stable
arrangement.
Also all the noble gases have
eight electrons on their outer
shell apart from helium, which
only has two electrons.…read more

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Balancing equations
Ok I have to do this one quick, I find it very tricky
so my best advice is that you keep on doing
Ok I try my best to explain it, so here's an equation
until your brain is filled of this.
Al + O2 Al2O3
Yes we are going to......balance equations (the
Ok then we need to organise this equation, as you can see
horror) So we're going to start off easy then
there is 1 Al and 2 O on the first part and 2 Al and 3 O on
harder
the second part. What we need to do it is even the Al the
First equation:-
only way to do so it add a 2 in front of the Al now we have a
Cu + O2 CuO
happy Al
What's wrong with it you ask? Well as you can
Ok the oxygen, this part gets pretty tricky because you
see the copper is perfectly fine......it's the
can't add a 1 in front of an atom so we are going to add 1.5
Oxygen that is creating a nuisance because we
in front of Al so we can multiply 1.5 to the tiny two to make
need the numbers to be the same what we do
3, right?
is simply add a 2 in front of CuO (because we
WRONG! We can't do that so the best thing to do is
can't add little numbers and we also can't add
multiply both sides of the equations by 2:-
it to one atom once it becomes a compound)
4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3
wait hang on! The equation is still unbalanced
And surprisingly we have a balanced equation
see :-
See 4 Aluminium on both sides and 6 oxygen's on both
Cu + O2 2CuO
sides But I highly doubt this sort of thing will come up but if
What we need to do is make the copper
it does at least I covered it!
balanced all we need to do is add on another
two and then we are done
Finished equation BALANCED
2Cu + O2 2CuO I am very sorry if you don't understand it's pretty
hard trying to explain it without being able to
interactive T ^ T…read more

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Limestone and it's uses
Limestone is basically a rock made up of 1. Environmental effects of producing
mainly calcium carbonate, like most rocks building material from limestone 2&3. Social effects & economical
it's used to build essential materials. Ok firstly Limestone is made in limestone effects
Limestone is a natural starting point for quarries so I'm mostly talking about There aren't that many social
cement, quicklime and concrete limestone quarries effects of producing building
Also powdered limestone can be heated Disadvantage:- Well lets start off with the materials from limestone because
strongly with a mixture of sand and soda to bad side of it, ok limestone absorbs water they link to economical effects so I
create glass. this is not good because it creates HUGE did the smart thing and keep them
Powdered limestone mixed with powdered holes so when we have limestone quarries together
clay and heated strongly makes cement. (they are basically large pits dug in the Advantage:- Local communities
If we mix cement powder with water, sand ground and limestone is mimed there) benefit from both jobs and money
and crushed rock a slow chemical reaction Limestone quarries destroys landscapes spent locally, more jobs result and
produces a hard substance a.k.a concrete because it is usually uses up beautiful there is also local benefits for
landscape also trucks and lorries used in organisations this could include
There are 3 things that they will ask the process produce pollution new power lines and a possible
subliminally : environmental, social and Advantage:- Well we get limestone, duh! It rail line
economic effects also helps to produces very valuable Disadvantage:- It is very noisy and
products concrete, cement and glass. disturbs people's daily lives not to
mention the heavy traffic
Advantage and disadvantage of various building materials
Concrete:- the advantage is it's very strong and this makes
it good at withstanding getting crushed or squeezed but Limestone:- Like I said before it builds materials that's an
weak when it gets bent, to make it stronger people pour advantage, however it absorbs water which is not a good
steel rods around them creating reinforced concrete, thing
concrete buildings are seen as unattractive Glass:- is easily shattered but it tough enough to be used as
windows, however in the summer glass becomes very hot…read more

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Comments

sofia meniai

so brilliant, thank you

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