Biology MDCAT

  • Created by: SummayaM
  • Created on: 09-08-17 10:15
What is the structural and functional unit of life?
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Which is the smallest unit that can carry out all activities of life?
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Who discovered the cell?
Robert Hooke
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How can organelles be seperated from a cell?
Cell fractionation
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How many layers in the nuclear membrane?
Double layers
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Where is the DNA of a prokaryotic cell located?
Directly submerged in cytoplasm
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Blue green algae are prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
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What size ribosomes are present in prokaryotic cells?
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What is the prokaryotic cell wall composed of?
Peptidoglycans or Murein
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What is the cell wall of fungi composed of?
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Is mitosis present in prokaryotes?
No they divide by binary fission
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What is the composition of murein?
polysaccaharide chains covalently bonded to shorter chain amino acids
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The cell wall of prokaryotes is often regarded as a single huge molecule called?
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What is the composition of a plant cell wall?
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How many chromosomes are present in potatoes and chimpanzees?
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How many chromosomes are present in garden pea
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How many chromosomes are present in Drosophila
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How many chromosomes are present in Onions?
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How many chromosomes does a frog cell have?
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What is the composition of chromosomes?
DNA, Histone Proteins and small traces of RNA
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Where do spindle fibres attach on a chromosome?
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Does the nucleolus have a membrane?
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Where is rRNA synthesized?
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How many regions are there in the nucleolus?
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Describe the regions of the nucleolus
Peripheral granular area composed of precursors of ribosomal units and the central fibril area
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What is contained in the central fibril area?
Large molecular weight RNA and rDNA
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What allows exchange of material between the nucleus and cytoplasm?
Nuclear Pores
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How many nuclear pores are present in undifferentiated cells?
30,000 per nucleus
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How many nuclear pores are present in differentiated cells?
3 per nucleus
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When is nucleus visible?
When cell is non-dividing
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Who first reported the presence of the nucleus?
Robert Hooke
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Are plastids present in animal cells?
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Which metal ion is present in chlorophyll?
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Is chlorophyll an organic compound?
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What is the diameter of chlorophyll molecules?
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On average how many thylakoids form one granum?
50 or more
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What color are grana and intergrana?
Green and non-green
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Are Chloroplasts self replicating?
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Which plastids are present in petals of flowers and ripened fruits?
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Which plastids are colorless?
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Which plastids store food?
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Is mitochondria a self replicating organ?
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What are F1 particles?
Small knob like structures on the inner surface of cristae
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Does fatty acid metabolism occur in mitochondria?
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The tonoplast is how many layered?
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Describe two functions of the vacuole
Expand cell without diluting its contents, store water or metabolic intermediates
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Which protein is present in microtubules?
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Blood is what kind of tissue?
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What part of our body mass is due to blood?
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Which component constitutes 55% of blood volume?
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What % of blood is occupied by cells and cell like bodies?
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What % of plasma is water?
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Solutes in blood can be divided into how many categories?
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Inorganic ions make up what percentage of plasma?
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Which ion is most abundant in humans?
Two-thirds of all ions by weight are NaCl
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What is the pH of blood?
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What percentage of plasma is plasma proteins?
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Which protein is a catalyst for blood clotting?
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What serves as a precursor of steroid hormones?
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How are hormones transported?
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Which protein maintains osmotic pressure?
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Where are nitrogenous waste produced?
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What are the main sources of energy in cells?
Simple carbohydrates
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What is the general equation for carbohydrates?
Cx(H2O)y (where x is any number from 3 and above)
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What is the chemical name of carbohydrates?
Polyhydroxyaldehydes or ketones?
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What are the primary products of photosynthesis?
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What is the protective coating on fruits and leaves?
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What is the chemical composition of waxes?
Mixture of long chain alkanes (with odd number of carbons ranging from C25 to 35) alcohols, ketones and long fatty esters
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What protects plants from water loss and abrasive damage?
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Phospholipids are derivatives of which compound?
phosphatidic acid
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What is the composition of phosphaditic acid?
Glycerol, Fatty acids, Phosphoric acid
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Which three nitrogenous bases are important components of phospholipids?
Choline, Ethanolamine, Serine
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Which is the most common phospholipid?
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What is another name for phosphatidycholine?
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What is the repeating unit of terpenoids?
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Rubber is which macromolecule?
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Which compound constitutes 50pc of our dry weight?
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Can wax be secreted by insects?
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How many types of nucleotides are present in DNA?
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Which links nucleotides to each other?
Phosphodiester bonds
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What does NAD stand for?
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
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Is NAD a coenzyme or prosthetic group?
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What was the accomplisment of Erwin Chargaff
Provided data about the ratios of different bases in DNA
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Who determined the structure of DNA and how?
Maurice Wilkins and Rosaline Franklin using X ray Diffraction
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Who built the scale model of DNA?
James D Watson and Francis Crick
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How is DNA coiled?
In the form of a double helix with each strand antiparallel
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How many nucleotide chains is DNA made out of?
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How are the strands of DNA held together?
Through hydrogen bonding
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How many hydrogen bonds are between G and C?
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How many bases are in each turn of DNA?
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What is the length of each turn of DNA?
34 A
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The branch of biology which deals with the study of viruses is called?
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Who carried out the first vaccination and for whcih disease?
Edward Jenner, cowpox
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How many people did Jenner vaccinate agaisnt cowpox?
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Who first used the term vaccination?
Louis Pasteur
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What did Charles Chamberland discover?
That the agent responsible for rabies could pass through procelain fibres whereas bacteria could not
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What did Ivanowski discover?
The agent responsible for tobacco mosaic disease was filterable
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Which agent is responsible for yellow fever and foot in mouth disease?
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What was the achievement of Stanley?
He purified virus by crystalizing the tobacco mosaic virus
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What is the size of parvoviruses?
20 nm
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What is the size of poxviruses
250 nm
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How many times are viruses smaller than bacteria?
10 to 1000 times
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Where do viruses reproduce and how?
In living cells through replication
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Viruses are what kind of intracellular parasites?
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Who discovered viruses?
Twort and D'Herelle
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What is a virion?
Complete, mature infectious particle
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What is the protein coat around a virus called?
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What are the subunits of a capsid?
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How many capsomeres are present in herpes virus?
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How many capsomeres are present in adenovirus?
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Where is the envelope of a virus derived from?
From the Host cell
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What are infectous proteins called
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What is responsible for mad cow disease?
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Bacteriophages exist in how many structural forms?
2, cubical or helical
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How many faces does icosahedral have
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What is another name for the mumps virus?
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What is the inflammation of liver called?
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Which type of hepatitis is transmitted through contact of feaces?
Type A
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What is serum hepatitis?
Type B
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Which hepatitis has the same mode of infection as HIV?
Type C
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Which types of hepatitis have the same mode of infection?
Type A and E
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Describe the hepatitis type A virus
RNA and enveloped
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Describe type B hepatitis virus
DNA virus
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Vaccines for which hepatitis is available?
Type B and A
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Which hepatitis is common in Asia?
Type B
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What could be the source of infection of Hepatitis E?
Pigs as found by Halbur and coworker
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How many species of fungi are known?
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How many carbons in a carbohydrate have a hydroxy group?
All but one
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Monosaccharides have how many carbon atoms?
3 to 7
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Where do tetroses occur?
Rarely in nature, in some bacteria
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What is the five carbon ribose ring called?
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What is the six carbon glucose ring called?
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What is the percentage of glucose in our blood?
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How much solar energy is required for the synthesis of 10g of glucose?
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How many monosaccharides are yielded on hydrolysis of oligosaccharides?
two to ten
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Is glucose a non-reducing sugar?
No a reducing sugar
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Chitin is made up of what?
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What is the basic unit of agar?
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What is the main source of carbohydrates for animals?
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Which component of starch is soluble in water?
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What color does glycogen give with iodine?
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Which is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature?
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What is the pure form of cellulose?
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What color does cellulose give with iodine?
No color
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What is the composition of acyl glycerols?
Glycerol and fatty acids
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What is another name for neutral lipids?
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During esterification, which group releases the OH?
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What number of carbon atoms are present in fatty acids?
Even numbers from 2-30
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What is the maximum number of double bonds a fatty acid can have?
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What is the structure of fatty acids in animals?
Straight chain
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What is the formula of Palmitic acid?
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What is the melting point of palmitic and butyric acid?
63.1, -8
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Is Oleic acid saturated or not?
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What is the specific gravity of oil and fats?
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What is the double bond in oleic acid?
Between c9 and c10
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How many amino acids occur in cells?
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How many amino acids constitute proteins?
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What was the achievement of F Sanger?
First scientist to determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein
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Describe the structure of insulin
Two chains, one of 21 amino acids and the other of 30 held together by disulphide bridges
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Describe the structure of Hemoglobin
Four chains, two alpha each of 141 amino acids and two beta each 146 amino acids
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How many proteins are present in the human body?
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How many amino acids are in each turn of alpha helix?
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For which proteins is secondary structure most important?
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Who first isolated nucleic acids?
F.Meishcer from pus cells
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Which carbon lacks OH group in deoxyribose?
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Which microbe was the first to have its genome completely sequenced?
Haemophilus Influenza
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What is the percentage of mRNA in total RNA?
3 to 4
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What is the percentage of tRNA in total RNA?
10 to 20
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What is the chain length of tRNA?
75 to 90 nucleotides
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Histone proteins are basic or acidic?
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What is the nonprotein part of enzyme called?
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What is a detachable co factor called?
An activator if it is an inorganic ion
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What is a prosthetic group?
Non protein covalently bonded to an enzyme
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What is coenzyme?
Non protein loosely bonded to the enzyme
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What are coenzymes made of?
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What is an apoenzyme?
Enzyme with its coenzyme or prosthetic group removed
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What is a holoenzyme?
Activated enzyme consisting of polypeptide chain and cofactor
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What is the inactive form of pepsin?
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What is the charge bearing site of an enzyme?
Active Site
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How many regions are present in an active site?
Two, binding site and catalytic site
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What kind of medium does an enzyme require?
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What was the contribution of Emil Fischer?
Proposed Lock and Key Model
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What was the contribution of Koshland
Proposed Induced Fit Model
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What is the optimum temperature for enzymes in the human body?
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What is the optimum pH for pepsin?
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What is the optimum pH for salivary amylase?
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What is the relationship of cyanide ions to enzymes?
It is an inhibitor
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What do competitive inhibitors do?
They are unable to activate the catalytic site
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Where do non competitive inhibitors bind?
At any point other than the active site
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What is a non competitive inhibitor for succinic dehydrogenase?
Malonic acid
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What is the optimum pH for pancreatic lipase?
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Who was the first to report on microbes such as bacteria?
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek in rainwater
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Who formulated the germ theory of disease?
Robert Kuch
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Who discovered Bacteria that cause TB and cholera?
Robert Kuch
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What is generation time?
Interval of time until next binary fission
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Describe the stationary phase in growth of bacteria
Death rate = Birth Rate
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What happens in conjugation?
Genetic material from donor bacterium transfered to recipient
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How do conjugating bacteria transfer genes
Through sex pilli
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Do all bacteria have cell wall?
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Range of bacterial size
0.1 to 600micrometer
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How many categories of bacteria are there based on shape?
3, cocci, bacilli, spiral
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What is pleomorphic?
Existing in a variety of shapes
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What plane of division do bacilli follow?
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Escherihia coli is what kind of bacteria?
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What are the three forms of spiral bacteria?
Vibrio, spirillum, spirochete
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Where does flagella originate from?
Basal body
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What are Artichous?
Bacteria without flagella
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Whiich bacteria rarely has flagella?
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Where are true pilli present?
Gram negative bacteria
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How do bacteria attach themselves to surfaces?
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What provides great pathogenicity to bacteria?
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Which bacteria do not have cell wall?
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What is the staining of gram positive and negative bacteria?
Purple (retain primary dye due to formation of CV 1 complex) and pink
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Which are more thicker gram positive or negative bacteria?
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Do bacterial cell walls have cholesterol?
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What are mesosomes involved in?
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Do fungi have centrioles?
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What type of mitosis do fungi show?
Nuclear mitosis, where the nuclear membrane does not break and spindle fiber forms within the nucleus
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What is the body of a fungus called?
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How many types of hyphae are there?
Two, Septate and non spetate (coenocytic)
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What are mushrooms?
Hyphae packed together and organized to form complex reproductive structures
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What are yeast?
Non hyphal unicellular hyphae
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What are Rhizoids?
Modified hyphae through which saprobic fungi anchor to substrate
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What are haustoria?
Special hyphal tips from which parasitic fungi absorb nutrients from host cells
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Name an omnivorous predatory fungi
Oyster Mushroom
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What is the percentage of proteins in plasma membrane?
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What is pinocytosis?
Endocytosis of liquids
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What secretes the cell wall?
Protoplasm of cell
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Which is thicker primary or secondary wall?
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Describe composition of secondary cell wall
Inorganic salts, silica, waxes and cutin lignin
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What is the soluble part of cytoplasm
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Peripheral parts of the cell show which kind of consistency
Gel like
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How do organelles move in cytoplasm?
Cytoplasmic streaming movements
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Cisternae are membranes of which structure
Endoplasmic Reticulum
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Which organelle detoxifies ?
Smooth ER
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Who first studied ribosomes?
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Which ion controls attachment of ribosomal subunits?
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What is polysome
Group of ribosomes attached to mRNA
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What is the contribution of De Duve?
Discovered lysosomes and peroxisome
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What are digestive vacuoles?
Secondary lysosomes
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What are autophagosomes?
Secondary lysosomes
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How are storage disease caused?
By genetic mutation that has an effect of a lysomatic enzyme
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How many disease are known to be caused by the absence of an enzyme?
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Where are glyoxysomes most abundant?
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Glyoxysomes break down fatty acids into what?
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Name a lipid poor seed
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What is the composition of Microfilaments
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What is the function ofmicrofilaments
Internal Cell Motion
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Which organelle is involved in formation of cilia?
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Name the five parts of the large intestine
Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, caecum, rectum
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What is pytalin?
Carbohydrate digesting enzyme that forms maltose
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What is the pH of fresh saliva?
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Which side is the stomach present on?
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What is another name for pyrosis?
Heart burn
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How many layers in the stomach?
Three, outer layer of connective tissue, middle layer of smooth muscle and inner layer of glands and c.tissue
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How many cells in gastric gland?
3, Zymogen, Mucous, Oxyntic (Parietal)
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Where is gastrin secreted from?
Gastric endocrine lining
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What are the products from pepsin?
Polypeptides, and peptones
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Sphincter present between stomach and duodenum?
Pyloric sphincter
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Length of Duodenum?
20-25 cm long
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What produces secretin?
Intestinal mucosa on entry of acidic food from stomach
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Another name for pancreatic amylase
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What activates trypsinogen?
Enterokinase an enzyme secreted by the lining of the duodenum
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Precipitation of which compound causes gall stones?
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Length of jejunum
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What is the product of amino peptidase?
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What is the product of Erypsin?
Amino acids
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Where do fatty acids and glycerol recombine?
Epithelial cells of villi
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Through where lipoprotein droplets enter bloodstream?
Thoracic lympatic duct
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Sphincter at the end of ileum
ileolic sphincter
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How many sphincters does anus have?
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What is incomplete or imperfect digestion called?
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What does campylobacter cause?
Food poisoning
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What causes botulism?
Clostridium botulinum
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What do zymogen cells secrete?
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What do oxyntic or perietal cells secrete?
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What are piles?
Masses of dilated veins in anorectal mucosa
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How many RBCs in one cubic mm blood
5 and a half in males, 4 and a half in females
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Average Life span of RBCs
4 months
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Which structure produces RBCs during embryonic life
Liver and Spleen
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Number of white blood cells per cubic mm of blood
7 to 8000
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Two main types of white blood cells
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
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Which cell inactivates inflammation producing substances
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What causes inflammation and who produces it
Histamine, Basophil
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What prevents blood clots and who releases it
Heparin and basophils
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What are platelets fragments of?
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Name a soluble plasma protein
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What percentage of osmotic pressure maintainance is done by albumin
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What is interferon structurally?
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What are myelogenous cells?
Bone marrow cells
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Alternate name for Cooley's Anemia
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What is Oedema?
Excess fluid in tissues
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Where do lymph vessels empty?
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Where does thoracic lymph duct open into?
Subclavian vein
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Do lymph vessels contain valves?
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What are lymph nodes?
Masses of connective tissue where lymphocytes are present
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Where are lymph nodes present?
Neck region, axilla, groins
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Name four large lymphoid masses
Spleen, Thymus, Tonsils, Adenoids
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What is the volume of excess interstitial fluid per day?
3 litres
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What happens to lymph nodes in mumps?
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Which organ filters blood?
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What accompanies a myocardial infracture?
Arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation
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How many layers in the wall of the heart?
3, Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
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In cardiac muscles, successive cells are seperated by what?
Junctions called intercalated discs.
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Tricuspid valve flaps are attached to what?
Papillary muscles through Fibrous cords called chordeae tendinae
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How many times is the wall of the left ventricle thicker than the right?
Three times
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What is the name of the artery that supplies blood to the legs?
Iliac artery
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Which vein has de oxygenated blood and absorbed food?
Hepatic portal vein
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How long does a single heartbeat last?
0.8 seconds
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How long is the delay between SA and AV node?
0.15 seconds
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What is atheroma
Deposition of hard yellow plaque of lipid
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What does histamine do to veins?
Dilates them
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What is rate of blood flow in aorta?
400-500 mm
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How many passage ways is each nasal cavity divided into?
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Each nasal cavity leads into the throat by how many internal openings?
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What is pharynx?
Muscular passage lined with mucous membrane
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Where is the larynx?
Upper end of trachea
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What is the opening of the voicebox called
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How many vocal cords are in humans?
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During swallowing, jaws are?
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What are bronchioles?
Bronchi with a diameter of 1 mm or less
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What is the functional unit of lungs?
Air sacs
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What is the diaphragm?
A sheet of skeletal muscles
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During rest, what is the frequency of breathing in humans?
15-20 times per minute
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During Inspiration, which way does diaphragm move?
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What is surfactant?
A mixture of lipoprotein molecules
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Which cells produce surfactant?
Secretory cells of alveolar epithelium
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What causes respiratory distress syndrome?
Lack of production of surfactant
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Where can haemoglobin absorb maximum oxygen?
Sea level
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What is the maximum amount of oxygen carried by humans in blood?
20/100 ml
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What is the oxygen tension when Hb is 98pc saturated?
115 mm
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Beyond what level of oxygen tension does Hb fall sharply?
60 mm
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What is the relationship between temperature, ph and oxygen carrying capacity of Hb
Inverse proportionality for temp, direct for pH
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Which is more soluble CO2 or O2?
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What percentage of carbon is transported as carboxyhaemoglobin?
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What percentage of carbon is transported by plasma?
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Corpuscles combined with potassium carry small amounts of which gas?
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What percentage of lung cancer is caused by smoking?
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How many times is the oxygen carrying capacity of blood increased due to haemoglobin?
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How many polypeptide chains are associated with myoglobin?
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What is the maximum capacity of lungs?
5 litres
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During exercise, what volume of air is taken up and expelled?
3.5 litres
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What is the waste product of nucleic acids?
Uric aid
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Describe Urea Cycle
NH3 + ornithine = Citrulline + NH3 = Arginine =(by the action of arginase) Urea
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How many times less water is required for elimination of urea as compared with NH3?
10 times less
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Percentage of body weight due to kidneys
One percent
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What is the resting heartbeat?
60 to 100 heartbeats per minute
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What are the functional units of kidneys?
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What the efferent arteriole divide into?
Peritubular capillaries
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Where do the collecting tubes open into?
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What additional vessel system is present in juxtamedullary nephrons?
Vasa Recta
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What does the tubular epithelium release and why?
Mostly hydrogen ions to balance pH
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What percentage of water is conserved by the kidneys?
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Which hormone promotes the active uptake of sodium ions in ascending limb?
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Where is ADH released from?
Posterior pituitary gland
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What is hyperoxaluria?
Higher level of oxalates in blood
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Where are oxalates present?
Green vegetables and tomatoes
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What percentage of kidney stones is due to calcium oxalate?
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What percentage of kidneys stones is due to calcium phosphate and uric acid?
15pc and 10pc
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What is the most common lithotripsy?
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
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What are the two types of dialysis
Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis
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What is another name for artificial kidney?
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Repeated divisions of which cell produce spermatogonia?
Germinal epithelium of seminiforous tubules
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How many testes do men have?
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Where do testes lie?
Outside the body in a sac like scrotum
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Primary spermatocytes undergo which kind of division?
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What differentiates into mature sperm?
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What is the main duct of the male reproductive system?
The vas deferens
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What forms the epididymis?
The vas deferens
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Where are the interstitial cells in testes?
Between the seminiferous tubules
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What do interstitial cells secrete?
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Which cells produce oogonia?
Germ cells
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What division do germ cells undertake?
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What encloses primary oocytes?
Group of follicle cells
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How far does the second meiotic division proceed in secondary oocyte?
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Where does fertilization of ovum take place?
Proximal part of oviduct
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Which hormone is released on the onset of puberty?
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What is the process of primary follicle disintegration called?
Follicle Atresia
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Which oocyte is released during ovulation?
Secondary oocyte
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What causes gonorrhoa?
Gram positive bacterium Nesisseria Gonorrhoeae
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What causes sphilis?
Spirochaete, Treponema Pallidum
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What causes genital herpes?
Herpes simplex type 2 virus
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Who evaluated the three DNA replication theories?
Meselson and Stahl
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What is DNA dissolved in?
Caseium Chloride
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How many DNA polymerase are in bacteria?
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How many times is polymerase 3 heavier than 1?
10 times
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What is the speed of DNA Polymerase 3?
1000 nucleotides per second
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Which end can DNA polymerase add to?
3 prime
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What is the direction of DNA replication
5 prime to 3 prime
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How long are Okazaki fragments?
100-200 nucleotides in eukaryotes 1000-2000 in prokaryotes
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Another name for template strand
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Another name for sense strand
Coding strand
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How many binding sites in promoter in prokaryotes
two, -35 -10
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How many binding sites in promoter in eukaryotes
two -75 -25
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Which protein initiates transcription process?
Sigma Factor
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Which enzymes move on template strand and complete transcription process?
Sore enzymes
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Where does the DNA strand open during transcription?
The place where enzyme is attached to template forming transcription bubble
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What is the simplest stop sequence?
A series of GC base pairs followed by a series of AT pairs
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How many U ribonucleotides follow a GC hairpin?
Four or more
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How is mRNA made stable during its journey from nucelous to ribosomes?
Addition of cap and tail
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What is the cap?
7 methly GTP linked 5' to 5' with first nucleotide
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What form is the tail present in?
poly A tail linked to 3'
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What is genetic code?
Combination of 3 nucleotides coding for a specific amino acid
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How many pairs of nucleotides can formed with four nucleotides?
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The genetic code is what kind of code?
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What are the three nonsense codons?
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Which amino acid is the initiation codon?
Methionine, AUG
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What does AGA specify?
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What does UGA read in mitochondria?
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What do AGA and AGG code for in mitochondria?
Stop codons
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What does AUA read for in mitochondria?
Methionine instead of isoleucine
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How do particular tRNA molecules become attached to specific amino acids?
Through aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
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How does protein synthesis begin in prokaryotes?
By the synthesis of initiation complex
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What is the chemically modified methionine called?
N formyl methionine
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What is P side?
Peptidyl site
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Where do peptide bonds form?
Peptidyl site
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What is A site?
Aminoacyl site
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Where do successive amino acid bearing tRNAs bind
Aminoacyl site
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Which subunit binds the appropriate tRNA molecule with the appropriate anticodon
Large ribosomal subunit
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Which proteins assist in binding tRNA to the exposed mRNA codon at the A site
Elongation factors
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Which subunit catalyzes the reaction between two amino acids in an initiation complex?
Large ribosomal subunit
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Which condons do not bind with tRNA?
Non sense
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What recognizes non sense codons?
Release factors
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How many phases in cell cycle?
Two Interphase and mitotic phase
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Cells of eye lens are in which stage of the cell cycle?
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How long is the average cell cycle in humans?
24 hours
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How long is the G1 phase?
9 Hours
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How long does mitosis take?
30 minutes
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How long is the S phase?
10 hours
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How long is G2 phase?
4.5 hours
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How long is the full cell cycle in yeast?
90 minutes
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How many phases in mitosis?
432 of 559
When does centriole duplicate?
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What establishes the bipolarity of the dividing cells?
Migration of centrioles
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How many sets of microtubules originate from each pair of centriole?
3, astral (radiate outwards and form aster), Other two form spindle
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What do polar microtubules do?
Interdigitate with polar mictrotubules from the opposite pole
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Is the mitotic spindle larger than the nucleus?
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What is the length of chromosomes?
0.25micro to 50 micrometer
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When does the chromatin network condense into chromosomes?
Beginning of prophase
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When does nucleoli disappear?
End of prophase
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What happens to cytoplasm by the end of prophase?
Becomes more viscous
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How many fibres does a kintechore get?
Two, one from each pole
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What is the most critical phase of mitosis?
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When kintechore fibres contract, what do pole microtubules do?
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How many nuclei are present by the end of telophase?
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Which proteins form contracile ring?
Actin and myosin
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What sends signals to equatorial regions of the cell and activates myosin and actin?
Astral microtubules
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What is formed instead of contracile ring in higher plants?
Phragmoplast from vesicles which originate from golgi complex during metaphase
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Which division is called reduction division?
First meiotic division
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How many chromatids in a dividing diploid cell?
450 of 559
How many chromosomes in a dividing diploid cell?
451 of 559
Which phase is present in mitosis but not in meiosis?
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How many stages in prophase1?
5. Leptotene, Zygotene, Parchytene, Diplotene, Diakinesis
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What happens in leptotene?
Chromosomes thicken
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What happens in zygotene?
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What happens in pachytene?
Crossing over
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What happens in diplotene?
Paired chromosomes repel but remain united at chiasmata
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What happens at diakinesis?
Condensation reaches maximum, nucleoli disappear. Chromosomes connected often at ends
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When does nuclear membrane disorganize in meiosis 1?
Start of metaphase
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Does replication of chromosomes occur in meiosis 2?
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What are the bases of evolution?
Independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over
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What happens in chromosome non disjunction?
Chromosomes fail to segregate during anaphase and telophase
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Down Syndrome is a consequence of what?
Autosomal non disjunction of 21st chromosome
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Where does non-disjunction occur?
Ova of mother
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What are the chances of teenage mother having a child with DS?
One in many thousands
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What are the chances of a 40 year old mother having a child with DS?
One in one hundred
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How many times is the risk of DS greater at 45 years of age than 40?
Three times
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Which individuals have an extra sex chromosome?
Those effected by Klinefelter's Syndrome
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What phenotype do Klinefelter's Syndrome Individuals show?
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Which chromosome is missing in Turner's Syndrome?
X chromosome
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Do individuals with Turner's Syndrome have germ cells or ovaries?
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What did TH Morgan observe?
Sex chromosomes of Drosophilia fruit fly
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The 23rd pair in man is?
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Which gene is male determining?
SRY located at the tip of short arm of Y chromosome
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In male and female grasshoppers what is different?
Number of chromosomes
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How many chromosomes does a female grass hopper have?
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How many chromosomes does a male grasshopper have?
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What is nullo gaemete?
A gamete without any sex chromosome
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Where is ZZ-ZW sex determination common?
In birds, moths and butterflies
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Who discovered ZZ-ZW sex determination?
J Sieler in moth
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How can modes of inheritance in humans be studied?
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How many types of haemophilia are there?
3 A B C
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Which type of haemophilia is autosomal recessive?
Type C
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Percentage occurrence of Haemophilia A
80pc due to abnormality of factor 8
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Percentage occurrence of Haemophilia B
20pc due to disturbance of factor 9
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Percentage occurrence of Haemophilia C
Less than 1pc due to reduction in factor 11
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How many colors is our vision based on?
3, Red blue green
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How many cones in our retina?
488 of 559
What are light absorbing proteins in cones called?
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Where is the gene for blue opsin?
Autosome 7
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What is protanopia
Red blindness
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What is green blindness?
492 of 559
What is tritanopia?
Blue blindness
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What is true color blindness?
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Another name for blue cone monochromacy
Red-green color blindness
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Which gene develops genetically males into females?
TFM (Androgen insensitivity syndrome)
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Do patients of testicular feminization syndrome have a uterus?
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Maleness is a what linked trait?
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When are developmental processes towards maleness switched on?
6 weeks of pregnancy
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What is the physical relationship between genes called?
Gene Linkage
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How many linkage groups in man?
501 of 559
Gene for leukemia, albinoism and sickle cell anaemia are on which chromosome?
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Which genes do not obey Mendel's law of independent assortment?
Linked genes whose loci are close to eachother
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How can linked genes be seperated?
By crossing over
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What is the recombinant frequency directly proportional to?
Distance between linked gene loci
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Skin color shows quantitative or qualitative variation?
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Which traits did Mendel focus on?
Qualitatively different phenotypes
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What codes for a continuously varying trait?
Alleles of two or more different gene pairs found at different loci all influencing the same trait in an additative way
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Who studied the genetics of wheat grain color?
Nilson Ehle
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How many gene pairs contribute to wheat grain color?
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How many gene pairs control human skin color?
3 to 6
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What is the basic unit of biological information?
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Do jumping genes have a specific loci?
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Mendel formulated which laws?
Two laws of heredity. Law of segregation and law of independent assortment
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How many pairs did mendel focus on?
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What is F1 generation?
First Filial generation
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What were elementen?
Particulate hereditary factors.
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Who renamed elementen into genes?
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How to find the probability of two different probabilities occuring together?
Multiply them
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How many chromosomes in a pea?
520 of 559
What is dominance?
The physiological effect of an allele over its partner allele on the same gene locu
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What kind of dominance did the traits Mendel studied showed?
Complete Dominance
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When is there no need for a test cross?
In incomplete dominance, phenotypic ratio is same as genotypic
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Does blending of genes occur at genetic level?
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What is codominance?
Both alleles express independently
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Who discovered MN blood group in man?
Landsteiner and Levine
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How many alleles is it possible for a gene to have?
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Where are blood group genes encoded?
On a polymorphic gene I on chromosome 9
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What is antiserum?
Blood serum containing antibodies
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Why can O blood groups donate to all?
Because their antibodies are quickly absorbed by other tissues or greatly diluted in recipient's blood
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Who are secretors?
They have dominant secretor gene Se on chromosome 19
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How many genes for Rh blood group system?
3, C D E which occupy two tightly linked loci
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Which locus is of prime importance in Rh Blood group system?
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How many allele does gene D have?
2 D and d
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What is the breakdown product of RBCs called?
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What is epistasis?
When a gene on one loci interferes with the effect of another gene on a different loci
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How many ways are there to extract a gene?
3, isolate it from chromosome, synthesize it chemically, make it from mRNA
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Where are chromosomes cut and using which enzyme?
Flanking sites and restriction endonucleases
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What did Hamilton O Smith do?
Isolate the first restriction enzyme
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How many restriction enzymes have been isolated and how many are used?
400 and 20
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What is EcoR1?
Commonly used restriction enzyme
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Who discovered plasmids?
Investigators studying the sex life of intestinal bacterium Escherichia Coli
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Which plasmid has antibiotic resistance for tetracyline?
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Which plasmid has antibiotic resistance for both tetracycline and ampicillin?
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Another name for recombinant DNA
Chimaeric DNA
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What is used to make bacteria more permeable to plasmids?
Calcium Chloride
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Who developed the PCR?
Kary B Mullis
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What are primers?
Sequences of 20 bases that are complementary to the bases on either side of the "target DNA"
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Where is PCR done and using which enzyme?
Thermocycler and Taq Polymerase
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What is different about people's genomes?
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
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Which gland produces saliva with amylase?
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Which gland produces saliva with amylase and mucous?
552 of 559
Which gland produces saliva with mucous only?
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What are absorptive cells of small intestine responsible for?
Secretion of digestive enzymes and absorption of digestive material
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Another name for enterokinase
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In lytic cycle, how does the DNA exist?
As seperate molecule replicating seperately from host DNA
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Which fungal disease spreads by seed and flowers?
Loose **** of wheat
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Who first discovered the phenomenon of bacteriophage?
First twort in 1915 then D'Herelle in 1917
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After what time does bacteriophage population double?
25 minutes
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