Biology MDCAT

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  • Created by: SummayaM
  • Created on: 09-08-17 10:15
What is the structural and functional unit of life?
Cell
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Which is the smallest unit that can carry out all activities of life?
Cell
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Who discovered the cell?
Robert Hooke
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How can organelles be seperated from a cell?
Cell fractionation
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How many layers in the nuclear membrane?
Double layers
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Where is the DNA of a prokaryotic cell located?
Directly submerged in cytoplasm
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Blue green algae are prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
Prokaryotic
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What size ribosomes are present in prokaryotic cells?
70S
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What is the prokaryotic cell wall composed of?
Peptidoglycans or Murein
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What is the cell wall of fungi composed of?
Chitin
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Is mitosis present in prokaryotes?
No they divide by binary fission
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What is the composition of murein?
polysaccaharide chains covalently bonded to shorter chain amino acids
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The cell wall of prokaryotes is often regarded as a single huge molecule called?
Sacculus
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What is the composition of a plant cell wall?
Cellulose
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How many chromosomes are present in potatoes and chimpanzees?
48
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How many chromosomes are present in garden pea
14
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How many chromosomes are present in Drosophila
8
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How many chromosomes are present in Onions?
16
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How many chromosomes does a frog cell have?
26
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What is the composition of chromosomes?
DNA, Histone Proteins and small traces of RNA
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Where do spindle fibres attach on a chromosome?
Centromere
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Does the nucleolus have a membrane?
No
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Where is rRNA synthesized?
Nucleolus
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How many regions are there in the nucleolus?
Two
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Describe the regions of the nucleolus
Peripheral granular area composed of precursors of ribosomal units and the central fibril area
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What is contained in the central fibril area?
Large molecular weight RNA and rDNA
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What allows exchange of material between the nucleus and cytoplasm?
Nuclear Pores
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How many nuclear pores are present in undifferentiated cells?
30,000 per nucleus
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How many nuclear pores are present in differentiated cells?
3 per nucleus
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When is nucleus visible?
When cell is non-dividing
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Who first reported the presence of the nucleus?
Robert Hooke
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Are plastids present in animal cells?
No
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Which metal ion is present in chlorophyll?
Mg2+
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Is chlorophyll an organic compound?
Yes
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What is the diameter of chlorophyll molecules?
4-6micrometer
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On average how many thylakoids form one granum?
50 or more
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What color are grana and intergrana?
Green and non-green
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Are Chloroplasts self replicating?
Yes
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Which plastids are present in petals of flowers and ripened fruits?
Chromoplasts
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Which plastids are colorless?
Leucoplasts
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Which plastids store food?
leucoplasts
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Is mitochondria a self replicating organ?
Yes
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What are F1 particles?
Small knob like structures on the inner surface of cristae
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Does fatty acid metabolism occur in mitochondria?
Yes
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The tonoplast is how many layered?
Single
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Describe two functions of the vacuole
Expand cell without diluting its contents, store water or metabolic intermediates
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Which protein is present in microtubules?
Tubulin
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Blood is what kind of tissue?
Connective
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What part of our body mass is due to blood?
1/12
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Which component constitutes 55% of blood volume?
Plasma
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What % of blood is occupied by cells and cell like bodies?
45%
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What % of plasma is water?
90%
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Solutes in blood can be divided into how many categories?
Six
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Inorganic ions make up what percentage of plasma?
0.9%
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Which ion is most abundant in humans?
Two-thirds of all ions by weight are NaCl
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What is the pH of blood?
7.35-7.4
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What percentage of plasma is plasma proteins?
7-9%
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Which protein is a catalyst for blood clotting?
Prothrombin
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What serves as a precursor of steroid hormones?
Cholesterol
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How are hormones transported?
Blood
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Which protein maintains osmotic pressure?
Albumin
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Where are nitrogenous waste produced?
Liver
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What are the main sources of energy in cells?
Simple carbohydrates
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What is the general equation for carbohydrates?
Cx(H2O)y (where x is any number from 3 and above)
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What is the chemical name of carbohydrates?
Polyhydroxyaldehydes or ketones?
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What are the primary products of photosynthesis?
Carbohydrates
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What is the protective coating on fruits and leaves?
Waxes
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What is the chemical composition of waxes?
Mixture of long chain alkanes (with odd number of carbons ranging from C25 to 35) alcohols, ketones and long fatty esters
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What protects plants from water loss and abrasive damage?
Waxes
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Phospholipids are derivatives of which compound?
phosphatidic acid
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What is the composition of phosphaditic acid?
Glycerol, Fatty acids, Phosphoric acid
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Which three nitrogenous bases are important components of phospholipids?
Choline, Ethanolamine, Serine
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Which is the most common phospholipid?
Phosphatidycholine
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What is another name for phosphatidycholine?
Lecithin
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What is the repeating unit of terpenoids?
Isoprenoid
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Rubber is which macromolecule?
Terpenoid
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Which compound constitutes 50pc of our dry weight?
Proteins
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Can wax be secreted by insects?
Yes
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How many types of nucleotides are present in DNA?
Four
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Which links nucleotides to each other?
Phosphodiester bonds
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What does NAD stand for?
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
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Is NAD a coenzyme or prosthetic group?
Coenzyme
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What was the accomplisment of Erwin Chargaff
Provided data about the ratios of different bases in DNA
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Who determined the structure of DNA and how?
Maurice Wilkins and Rosaline Franklin using X ray Diffraction
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Who built the scale model of DNA?
James D Watson and Francis Crick
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How is DNA coiled?
In the form of a double helix with each strand antiparallel
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How many nucleotide chains is DNA made out of?
2
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How are the strands of DNA held together?
Through hydrogen bonding
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How many hydrogen bonds are between G and C?
3
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How many bases are in each turn of DNA?
10
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What is the length of each turn of DNA?
34 A
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The branch of biology which deals with the study of viruses is called?
Virology
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Who carried out the first vaccination and for whcih disease?
Edward Jenner, cowpox
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How many people did Jenner vaccinate agaisnt cowpox?
23
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Who first used the term vaccination?
Louis Pasteur
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What did Charles Chamberland discover?
That the agent responsible for rabies could pass through procelain fibres whereas bacteria could not
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What did Ivanowski discover?
The agent responsible for tobacco mosaic disease was filterable
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Which agent is responsible for yellow fever and foot in mouth disease?
Viruses
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What was the achievement of Stanley?
He purified virus by crystalizing the tobacco mosaic virus
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What is the size of parvoviruses?
20 nm
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What is the size of poxviruses
250 nm
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How many times are viruses smaller than bacteria?
10 to 1000 times
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Where do viruses reproduce and how?
In living cells through replication
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Viruses are what kind of intracellular parasites?
Obligate
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Who discovered viruses?
Twort and D'Herelle
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What is a virion?
Complete, mature infectious particle
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What is the protein coat around a virus called?
Capsid
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What are the subunits of a capsid?
Capsomeres
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How many capsomeres are present in herpes virus?
162
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How many capsomeres are present in adenovirus?
252
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Where is the envelope of a virus derived from?
From the Host cell
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What are infectous proteins called
Prions
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What is responsible for mad cow disease?
Prions
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Bacteriophages exist in how many structural forms?
2, cubical or helical
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How many faces does icosahedral have
20
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What is another name for the mumps virus?
Paramyxovirus
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What is the inflammation of liver called?
Hepatitis
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Which type of hepatitis is transmitted through contact of feaces?
Type A
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What is serum hepatitis?
Type B
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Which hepatitis has the same mode of infection as HIV?
Type C
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Which types of hepatitis have the same mode of infection?
Type A and E
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Describe the hepatitis type A virus
RNA and enveloped
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Describe type B hepatitis virus
DNA virus
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Vaccines for which hepatitis is available?
Type B and A
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Which hepatitis is common in Asia?
Type B
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What could be the source of infection of Hepatitis E?
Pigs as found by Halbur and coworker
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How many species of fungi are known?
100,000
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How many carbons in a carbohydrate have a hydroxy group?
All but one
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Monosaccharides have how many carbon atoms?
3 to 7
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Where do tetroses occur?
Rarely in nature, in some bacteria
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What is the five carbon ribose ring called?
Ribofuranose
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What is the six carbon glucose ring called?
Glucopyranose
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What is the percentage of glucose in our blood?
0.08
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How much solar energy is required for the synthesis of 10g of glucose?
717.6
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How many monosaccharides are yielded on hydrolysis of oligosaccharides?
two to ten
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Is glucose a non-reducing sugar?
No a reducing sugar
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Chitin is made up of what?
Polysaccharides
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What is the basic unit of agar?
Carbohydrates
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What is the main source of carbohydrates for animals?
Starch
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Which component of starch is soluble in water?
Amylose
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What color does glycogen give with iodine?
Red
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Which is the most abundant carbohydrate in nature?
Cellulose
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What is the pure form of cellulose?
Cotton
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What color does cellulose give with iodine?
No color
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What is the composition of acyl glycerols?
Glycerol and fatty acids
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What is another name for neutral lipids?
Triglycerides
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During esterification, which group releases the OH?
Alcohol
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What number of carbon atoms are present in fatty acids?
Even numbers from 2-30
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What is the maximum number of double bonds a fatty acid can have?
6
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What is the structure of fatty acids in animals?
Straight chain
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What is the formula of Palmitic acid?
C16H3202
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What is the melting point of palmitic and butyric acid?
63.1, -8
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Is Oleic acid saturated or not?
Unsaturated
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What is the specific gravity of oil and fats?
0.8
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What is the double bond in oleic acid?
Between c9 and c10
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How many amino acids occur in cells?
170
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How many amino acids constitute proteins?
25
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What was the achievement of F Sanger?
First scientist to determine the sequence of amino acids in a protein
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Describe the structure of insulin
Two chains, one of 21 amino acids and the other of 30 held together by disulphide bridges
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Describe the structure of Hemoglobin
Four chains, two alpha each of 141 amino acids and two beta each 146 amino acids
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How many proteins are present in the human body?
10,000
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How many amino acids are in each turn of alpha helix?
3.6
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For which proteins is secondary structure most important?
Fibrous
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Who first isolated nucleic acids?
F.Meishcer from pus cells
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Which carbon lacks OH group in deoxyribose?
C2
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Which microbe was the first to have its genome completely sequenced?
Haemophilus Influenza
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What is the percentage of mRNA in total RNA?
3 to 4
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What is the percentage of tRNA in total RNA?
10 to 20
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What is the chain length of tRNA?
75 to 90 nucleotides
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Histone proteins are basic or acidic?
Basic
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What is the nonprotein part of enzyme called?
Cofactor
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What is a detachable co factor called?
An activator if it is an inorganic ion
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What is a prosthetic group?
Non protein covalently bonded to an enzyme
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What is coenzyme?
Non protein loosely bonded to the enzyme
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What are coenzymes made of?
Vitamins
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What is an apoenzyme?
Enzyme with its coenzyme or prosthetic group removed
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What is a holoenzyme?
Activated enzyme consisting of polypeptide chain and cofactor
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What is the inactive form of pepsin?
Pepsinogen
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What is the charge bearing site of an enzyme?
Active Site
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How many regions are present in an active site?
Two, binding site and catalytic site
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What kind of medium does an enzyme require?
Aqueous
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What was the contribution of Emil Fischer?
Proposed Lock and Key Model
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What was the contribution of Koshland
Proposed Induced Fit Model
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What is the optimum temperature for enzymes in the human body?
37
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What is the optimum pH for pepsin?
2
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What is the optimum pH for salivary amylase?
6.80
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What is the relationship of cyanide ions to enzymes?
It is an inhibitor
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What do competitive inhibitors do?
They are unable to activate the catalytic site
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Where do non competitive inhibitors bind?
At any point other than the active site
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What is a non competitive inhibitor for succinic dehydrogenase?
Malonic acid
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What is the optimum pH for pancreatic lipase?
9
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Who was the first to report on microbes such as bacteria?
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek in rainwater
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Who formulated the germ theory of disease?
Robert Kuch
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Who discovered Bacteria that cause TB and cholera?
Robert Kuch
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What is generation time?
Interval of time until next binary fission
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Describe the stationary phase in growth of bacteria
Death rate = Birth Rate
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What happens in conjugation?
Genetic material from donor bacterium transfered to recipient
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How do conjugating bacteria transfer genes
Through sex pilli
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Do all bacteria have cell wall?
No
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Range of bacterial size
0.1 to 600micrometer
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How many categories of bacteria are there based on shape?
3, cocci, bacilli, spiral
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What is pleomorphic?
Existing in a variety of shapes
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What plane of division do bacilli follow?
One
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Escherihia coli is what kind of bacteria?
Diplobacillus
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What are the three forms of spiral bacteria?
Vibrio, spirillum, spirochete
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Where does flagella originate from?
Basal body
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What are Artichous?
Bacteria without flagella
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Whiich bacteria rarely has flagella?
Cocci
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Where are true pilli present?
Gram negative bacteria
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How do bacteria attach themselves to surfaces?
Pilli
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What provides great pathogenicity to bacteria?
Slime
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Which bacteria do not have cell wall?
Mycoplasmas
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What is the staining of gram positive and negative bacteria?
Purple (retain primary dye due to formation of CV 1 complex) and pink
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Which are more thicker gram positive or negative bacteria?
Positive
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Do bacterial cell walls have cholesterol?
No
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What are mesosomes involved in?
Reproduction
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Do fungi have centrioles?
No
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What type of mitosis do fungi show?
Nuclear mitosis, where the nuclear membrane does not break and spindle fiber forms within the nucleus
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What is the body of a fungus called?
Mycelium
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How many types of hyphae are there?
Two, Septate and non spetate (coenocytic)
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What are mushrooms?
Hyphae packed together and organized to form complex reproductive structures
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What are yeast?
Non hyphal unicellular hyphae
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What are Rhizoids?
Modified hyphae through which saprobic fungi anchor to substrate
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What are haustoria?
Special hyphal tips from which parasitic fungi absorb nutrients from host cells
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Name an omnivorous predatory fungi
Oyster Mushroom
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What is the percentage of proteins in plasma membrane?
60-80
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What is pinocytosis?
Endocytosis of liquids
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What secretes the cell wall?
Protoplasm of cell
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Which is thicker primary or secondary wall?
Secondary
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Describe composition of secondary cell wall
Inorganic salts, silica, waxes and cutin lignin
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What is the soluble part of cytoplasm
Cytosol
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Peripheral parts of the cell show which kind of consistency
Gel like
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How do organelles move in cytoplasm?
Cytoplasmic streaming movements
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Cisternae are membranes of which structure
Endoplasmic Reticulum
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Which organelle detoxifies ?
Smooth ER
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Who first studied ribosomes?
Palade
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Which ion controls attachment of ribosomal subunits?
Mg2+
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What is polysome
Group of ribosomes attached to mRNA
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What is the contribution of De Duve?
Discovered lysosomes and peroxisome
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What are digestive vacuoles?
Secondary lysosomes
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What are autophagosomes?
Secondary lysosomes
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How are storage disease caused?
By genetic mutation that has an effect of a lysomatic enzyme
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How many disease are known to be caused by the absence of an enzyme?
20
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Where are glyoxysomes most abundant?
Seedlings
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Glyoxysomes break down fatty acids into what?
Succinate
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Name a lipid poor seed
Pea
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What is the composition of Microfilaments
Actin
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What is the function ofmicrofilaments
Internal Cell Motion
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Which organelle is involved in formation of cilia?
Centrioles
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Name the five parts of the large intestine
Ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, caecum, rectum
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What is pytalin?
Carbohydrate digesting enzyme that forms maltose
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What is the pH of fresh saliva?
8
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Which side is the stomach present on?
Left
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What is another name for pyrosis?
Heart burn
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How many layers in the stomach?
Three, outer layer of connective tissue, middle layer of smooth muscle and inner layer of glands and c.tissue
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How many cells in gastric gland?
3, Zymogen, Mucous, Oxyntic (Parietal)
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Where is gastrin secreted from?
Gastric endocrine lining
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What are the products from pepsin?
Polypeptides, and peptones
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Sphincter present between stomach and duodenum?
Pyloric sphincter
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Length of Duodenum?
20-25 cm long
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What produces secretin?
Intestinal mucosa on entry of acidic food from stomach
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Another name for pancreatic amylase
Amylopsin
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What activates trypsinogen?
Enterokinase an enzyme secreted by the lining of the duodenum
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Precipitation of which compound causes gall stones?
Cholesterol
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Length of jejunum
2.4m
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What is the product of amino peptidase?
Dipeptides
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What is the product of Erypsin?
Amino acids
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Where do fatty acids and glycerol recombine?
Epithelial cells of villi
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Through where lipoprotein droplets enter bloodstream?
Thoracic lympatic duct
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Sphincter at the end of ileum
ileolic sphincter
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How many sphincters does anus have?
2
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What is incomplete or imperfect digestion called?
Dyspesia
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What does campylobacter cause?
Food poisoning
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What causes botulism?
Clostridium botulinum
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What do zymogen cells secrete?
Pepsinogen
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What do oxyntic or perietal cells secrete?
HCL
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What are piles?
Masses of dilated veins in anorectal mucosa
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How many RBCs in one cubic mm blood
5 and a half in males, 4 and a half in females
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Average Life span of RBCs
4 months
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Which structure produces RBCs during embryonic life
Liver and Spleen
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Number of white blood cells per cubic mm of blood
7 to 8000
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Two main types of white blood cells
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
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Which cell inactivates inflammation producing substances
Eosinophil
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What causes inflammation and who produces it
Histamine, Basophil
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What prevents blood clots and who releases it
Heparin and basophils
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What are platelets fragments of?
Megakaryocytes
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Name a soluble plasma protein
Fibrinogen
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What percentage of osmotic pressure maintainance is done by albumin
75
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What is interferon structurally?
Protein
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What are myelogenous cells?
Bone marrow cells
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Alternate name for Cooley's Anemia
Thalassaemia
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What is Oedema?
Excess fluid in tissues
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Where do lymph vessels empty?
Veins
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Where does thoracic lymph duct open into?
Subclavian vein
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Do lymph vessels contain valves?
Yes
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What are lymph nodes?
Masses of connective tissue where lymphocytes are present
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Where are lymph nodes present?
Neck region, axilla, groins
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Name four large lymphoid masses
Spleen, Thymus, Tonsils, Adenoids
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What is the volume of excess interstitial fluid per day?
3 litres
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What happens to lymph nodes in mumps?
Swelling
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Which organ filters blood?
Spleen
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What accompanies a myocardial infracture?
Arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation
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How many layers in the wall of the heart?
3, Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
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In cardiac muscles, successive cells are seperated by what?
Junctions called intercalated discs.
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Tricuspid valve flaps are attached to what?
Papillary muscles through Fibrous cords called chordeae tendinae
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How many times is the wall of the left ventricle thicker than the right?
Three times
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What is the name of the artery that supplies blood to the legs?
Iliac artery
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Which vein has de oxygenated blood and absorbed food?
Hepatic portal vein
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How long does a single heartbeat last?
0.8 seconds
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How long is the delay between SA and AV node?
0.15 seconds
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What is atheroma
Deposition of hard yellow plaque of lipid
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What does histamine do to veins?
Dilates them
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What is rate of blood flow in aorta?
400-500 mm
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How many passage ways is each nasal cavity divided into?
3
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Each nasal cavity leads into the throat by how many internal openings?
2
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What is pharynx?
Muscular passage lined with mucous membrane
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Where is the larynx?
Upper end of trachea
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What is the opening of the voicebox called
Glottis
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How many vocal cords are in humans?
2
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During swallowing, jaws are?
Closed
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What are bronchioles?
Bronchi with a diameter of 1 mm or less
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What is the functional unit of lungs?
Air sacs
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What is the diaphragm?
A sheet of skeletal muscles
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During rest, what is the frequency of breathing in humans?
15-20 times per minute
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During Inspiration, which way does diaphragm move?
Downwards
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What is surfactant?
A mixture of lipoprotein molecules
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Which cells produce surfactant?
Secretory cells of alveolar epithelium
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What causes respiratory distress syndrome?
Lack of production of surfactant
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Where can haemoglobin absorb maximum oxygen?
Sea level
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What is the maximum amount of oxygen carried by humans in blood?
20/100 ml
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What is the oxygen tension when Hb is 98pc saturated?
115 mm
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Beyond what level of oxygen tension does Hb fall sharply?
60 mm
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What is the relationship between temperature, ph and oxygen carrying capacity of Hb
Inverse proportionality for temp, direct for pH
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Which is more soluble CO2 or O2?
CO2
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What percentage of carbon is transported as carboxyhaemoglobin?
20pc
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What percentage of carbon is transported by plasma?
5
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Corpuscles combined with potassium carry small amounts of which gas?
CO2
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What percentage of lung cancer is caused by smoking?
90
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How many times is the oxygen carrying capacity of blood increased due to haemoglobin?
75
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How many polypeptide chains are associated with myoglobin?
One
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What is the maximum capacity of lungs?
5 litres
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During exercise, what volume of air is taken up and expelled?
3.5 litres
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What is the waste product of nucleic acids?
Uric aid
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Describe Urea Cycle
NH3 + ornithine = Citrulline + NH3 = Arginine =(by the action of arginase) Urea
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How many times less water is required for elimination of urea as compared with NH3?
10 times less
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Percentage of body weight due to kidneys
One percent
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What is the resting heartbeat?
60 to 100 heartbeats per minute
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What are the functional units of kidneys?
Nephrons
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What the efferent arteriole divide into?
Peritubular capillaries
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Where do the collecting tubes open into?
Pelvis
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What additional vessel system is present in juxtamedullary nephrons?
Vasa Recta
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What does the tubular epithelium release and why?
Mostly hydrogen ions to balance pH
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What percentage of water is conserved by the kidneys?
99.5
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Which hormone promotes the active uptake of sodium ions in ascending limb?
Aldosterone
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Where is ADH released from?
Posterior pituitary gland
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What is hyperoxaluria?
Higher level of oxalates in blood
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Where are oxalates present?
Green vegetables and tomatoes
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What percentage of kidney stones is due to calcium oxalate?
70pc
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What percentage of kidneys stones is due to calcium phosphate and uric acid?
15pc and 10pc
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What is the most common lithotripsy?
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
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What are the two types of dialysis
Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis
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What is another name for artificial kidney?
Dialyzer
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Repeated divisions of which cell produce spermatogonia?
Germinal epithelium of seminiforous tubules
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How many testes do men have?
2
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Where do testes lie?
Outside the body in a sac like scrotum
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Primary spermatocytes undergo which kind of division?
Meiotic
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What differentiates into mature sperm?
Spermatids
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What is the main duct of the male reproductive system?
The vas deferens
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What forms the epididymis?
The vas deferens
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Where are the interstitial cells in testes?
Between the seminiferous tubules
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What do interstitial cells secrete?
Testosterone
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Which cells produce oogonia?
Germ cells
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What division do germ cells undertake?
Mitotic
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What encloses primary oocytes?
Group of follicle cells
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How far does the second meiotic division proceed in secondary oocyte?
Metaphase
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Where does fertilization of ovum take place?
Proximal part of oviduct
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Which hormone is released on the onset of puberty?
FSH
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What is the process of primary follicle disintegration called?
Follicle Atresia
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Which oocyte is released during ovulation?
Secondary oocyte
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What causes gonorrhoa?
Gram positive bacterium Nesisseria Gonorrhoeae
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What causes sphilis?
Spirochaete, Treponema Pallidum
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What causes genital herpes?
Herpes simplex type 2 virus
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Who evaluated the three DNA replication theories?
Meselson and Stahl
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What is DNA dissolved in?
Caseium Chloride
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How many DNA polymerase are in bacteria?
3
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How many times is polymerase 3 heavier than 1?
10 times
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What is the speed of DNA Polymerase 3?
1000 nucleotides per second
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Which end can DNA polymerase add to?
3 prime
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What is the direction of DNA replication
5 prime to 3 prime
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How long are Okazaki fragments?
100-200 nucleotides in eukaryotes 1000-2000 in prokaryotes
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Another name for template strand
Antisense
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Another name for sense strand
Coding strand
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How many binding sites in promoter in prokaryotes
two, -35 -10
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How many binding sites in promoter in eukaryotes
two -75 -25
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Which protein initiates transcription process?
Sigma Factor
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Which enzymes move on template strand and complete transcription process?
Sore enzymes
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Where does the DNA strand open during transcription?
The place where enzyme is attached to template forming transcription bubble
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What is the simplest stop sequence?
A series of GC base pairs followed by a series of AT pairs
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How many U ribonucleotides follow a GC hairpin?
Four or more
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How is mRNA made stable during its journey from nucelous to ribosomes?
Addition of cap and tail
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What is the cap?
7 methly GTP linked 5' to 5' with first nucleotide
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What form is the tail present in?
poly A tail linked to 3'
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What is genetic code?
Combination of 3 nucleotides coding for a specific amino acid
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How many pairs of nucleotides can formed with four nucleotides?
16
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The genetic code is what kind of code?
Triplet
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What are the three nonsense codons?
UAA, UAG, UGA
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Which amino acid is the initiation codon?
Methionine, AUG
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What does AGA specify?
Arginine
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What does UGA read in mitochondria?
Tryptophan
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What do AGA and AGG code for in mitochondria?
Stop codons
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What does AUA read for in mitochondria?
Methionine instead of isoleucine
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How do particular tRNA molecules become attached to specific amino acids?
Through aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
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How does protein synthesis begin in prokaryotes?
By the synthesis of initiation complex
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What is the chemically modified methionine called?
N formyl methionine
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What is P side?
Peptidyl site
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Where do peptide bonds form?
Peptidyl site
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What is A site?
Aminoacyl site
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Where do successive amino acid bearing tRNAs bind
Aminoacyl site
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Which subunit binds the appropriate tRNA molecule with the appropriate anticodon
Large ribosomal subunit
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Which proteins assist in binding tRNA to the exposed mRNA codon at the A site
Elongation factors
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Which subunit catalyzes the reaction between two amino acids in an initiation complex?
Large ribosomal subunit
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Which condons do not bind with tRNA?
Non sense
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What recognizes non sense codons?
Release factors
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How many phases in cell cycle?
Two Interphase and mitotic phase
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Cells of eye lens are in which stage of the cell cycle?
G0
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How long is the average cell cycle in humans?
24 hours
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How long is the G1 phase?
9 Hours
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How long does mitosis take?
30 minutes
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How long is the S phase?
10 hours
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How long is G2 phase?
4.5 hours
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How long is the full cell cycle in yeast?
90 minutes
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How many phases in mitosis?
2
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When does centriole duplicate?
Interphase
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What establishes the bipolarity of the dividing cells?
Migration of centrioles
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How many sets of microtubules originate from each pair of centriole?
3, astral (radiate outwards and form aster), Other two form spindle
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What do polar microtubules do?
Interdigitate with polar mictrotubules from the opposite pole
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Is the mitotic spindle larger than the nucleus?
Yes
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What is the length of chromosomes?
0.25micro to 50 micrometer
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When does the chromatin network condense into chromosomes?
Beginning of prophase
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When does nucleoli disappear?
End of prophase
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What happens to cytoplasm by the end of prophase?
Becomes more viscous
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How many fibres does a kintechore get?
Two, one from each pole
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What is the most critical phase of mitosis?
Anaphase
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When kintechore fibres contract, what do pole microtubules do?
Elongate
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How many nuclei are present by the end of telophase?
2
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Which proteins form contracile ring?
Actin and myosin
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What sends signals to equatorial regions of the cell and activates myosin and actin?
Astral microtubules
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What is formed instead of contracile ring in higher plants?
Phragmoplast from vesicles which originate from golgi complex during metaphase
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Which division is called reduction division?
First meiotic division
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How many chromatids in a dividing diploid cell?
92
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How many chromosomes in a dividing diploid cell?
46
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Which phase is present in mitosis but not in meiosis?
G2
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How many stages in prophase1?
5. Leptotene, Zygotene, Parchytene, Diplotene, Diakinesis
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What happens in leptotene?
Chromosomes thicken
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What happens in zygotene?
Synapsis
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What happens in pachytene?
Crossing over
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What happens in diplotene?
Paired chromosomes repel but remain united at chiasmata
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What happens at diakinesis?
Condensation reaches maximum, nucleoli disappear. Chromosomes connected often at ends
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When does nuclear membrane disorganize in meiosis 1?
Start of metaphase
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Does replication of chromosomes occur in meiosis 2?
No
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What are the bases of evolution?
Independent assortment of chromosomes and crossing over
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What happens in chromosome non disjunction?
Chromosomes fail to segregate during anaphase and telophase
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Down Syndrome is a consequence of what?
Autosomal non disjunction of 21st chromosome
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Where does non-disjunction occur?
Ova of mother
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What are the chances of teenage mother having a child with DS?
One in many thousands
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What are the chances of a 40 year old mother having a child with DS?
One in one hundred
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How many times is the risk of DS greater at 45 years of age than 40?
Three times
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Which individuals have an extra sex chromosome?
Those effected by Klinefelter's Syndrome
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What phenotype do Klinefelter's Syndrome Individuals show?
Male
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Which chromosome is missing in Turner's Syndrome?
X chromosome
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Do individuals with Turner's Syndrome have germ cells or ovaries?
No
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What did TH Morgan observe?
Sex chromosomes of Drosophilia fruit fly
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The 23rd pair in man is?
Heteromorphic
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Which gene is male determining?
SRY located at the tip of short arm of Y chromosome
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In male and female grasshoppers what is different?
Number of chromosomes
475 of 559
How many chromosomes does a female grass hopper have?
24
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How many chromosomes does a male grasshopper have?
23
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What is nullo gaemete?
A gamete without any sex chromosome
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Where is ZZ-ZW sex determination common?
In birds, moths and butterflies
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Who discovered ZZ-ZW sex determination?
J Sieler in moth
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How can modes of inheritance in humans be studied?
Pedigrees
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How many types of haemophilia are there?
3 A B C
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Which type of haemophilia is autosomal recessive?
Type C
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Percentage occurrence of Haemophilia A
80pc due to abnormality of factor 8
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Percentage occurrence of Haemophilia B
20pc due to disturbance of factor 9
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Percentage occurrence of Haemophilia C
Less than 1pc due to reduction in factor 11
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How many colors is our vision based on?
3, Red blue green
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How many cones in our retina?
3
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What are light absorbing proteins in cones called?
Opsins
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Where is the gene for blue opsin?
Autosome 7
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What is protanopia
Red blindness
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What is green blindness?
Deuteranopia
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What is tritanopia?
Blue blindness
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What is true color blindness?
Monochromacy?
494 of 559
Another name for blue cone monochromacy
Red-green color blindness
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Which gene develops genetically males into females?
TFM (Androgen insensitivity syndrome)
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Do patients of testicular feminization syndrome have a uterus?
No
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Maleness is a what linked trait?
Y
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When are developmental processes towards maleness switched on?
6 weeks of pregnancy
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What is the physical relationship between genes called?
Gene Linkage
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How many linkage groups in man?
23
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Gene for leukemia, albinoism and sickle cell anaemia are on which chromosome?
11
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Which genes do not obey Mendel's law of independent assortment?
Linked genes whose loci are close to eachother
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How can linked genes be seperated?
By crossing over
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What is the recombinant frequency directly proportional to?
Distance between linked gene loci
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Skin color shows quantitative or qualitative variation?
Quantitative
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Which traits did Mendel focus on?
Qualitatively different phenotypes
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What codes for a continuously varying trait?
Alleles of two or more different gene pairs found at different loci all influencing the same trait in an additative way
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Who studied the genetics of wheat grain color?
Nilson Ehle
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How many gene pairs contribute to wheat grain color?
3
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How many gene pairs control human skin color?
3 to 6
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What is the basic unit of biological information?
Gene
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Do jumping genes have a specific loci?
No
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Mendel formulated which laws?
Two laws of heredity. Law of segregation and law of independent assortment
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How many pairs did mendel focus on?
7
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What is F1 generation?
First Filial generation
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What were elementen?
Particulate hereditary factors.
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Who renamed elementen into genes?
Johannsen
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How to find the probability of two different probabilities occuring together?
Multiply them
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How many chromosomes in a pea?
14
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What is dominance?
The physiological effect of an allele over its partner allele on the same gene locu
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What kind of dominance did the traits Mendel studied showed?
Complete Dominance
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When is there no need for a test cross?
In incomplete dominance, phenotypic ratio is same as genotypic
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Does blending of genes occur at genetic level?
No
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What is codominance?
Both alleles express independently
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Who discovered MN blood group in man?
Landsteiner and Levine
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How many alleles is it possible for a gene to have?
300
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Where are blood group genes encoded?
On a polymorphic gene I on chromosome 9
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What is antiserum?
Blood serum containing antibodies
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Why can O blood groups donate to all?
Because their antibodies are quickly absorbed by other tissues or greatly diluted in recipient's blood
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Who are secretors?
They have dominant secretor gene Se on chromosome 19
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How many genes for Rh blood group system?
3, C D E which occupy two tightly linked loci
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Which locus is of prime importance in Rh Blood group system?
D
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How many allele does gene D have?
2 D and d
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What is the breakdown product of RBCs called?
Bilirubin
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What is epistasis?
When a gene on one loci interferes with the effect of another gene on a different loci
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How many ways are there to extract a gene?
3, isolate it from chromosome, synthesize it chemically, make it from mRNA
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Where are chromosomes cut and using which enzyme?
Flanking sites and restriction endonucleases
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What did Hamilton O Smith do?
Isolate the first restriction enzyme
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How many restriction enzymes have been isolated and how many are used?
400 and 20
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What is EcoR1?
Commonly used restriction enzyme
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Who discovered plasmids?
Investigators studying the sex life of intestinal bacterium Escherichia Coli
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Which plasmid has antibiotic resistance for tetracyline?
pSC101
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Which plasmid has antibiotic resistance for both tetracycline and ampicillin?
pBR322
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Another name for recombinant DNA
Chimaeric DNA
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What is used to make bacteria more permeable to plasmids?
Calcium Chloride
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Who developed the PCR?
Kary B Mullis
547 of 559
What are primers?
Sequences of 20 bases that are complementary to the bases on either side of the "target DNA"
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Where is PCR done and using which enzyme?
Thermocycler and Taq Polymerase
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What is different about people's genomes?
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
550 of 559
Which gland produces saliva with amylase?
Parotid
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Which gland produces saliva with amylase and mucous?
Submandibular
552 of 559
Which gland produces saliva with mucous only?
Sublingual
553 of 559
What are absorptive cells of small intestine responsible for?
Secretion of digestive enzymes and absorption of digestive material
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Another name for enterokinase
Enteropeptidase
555 of 559
In lytic cycle, how does the DNA exist?
As seperate molecule replicating seperately from host DNA
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Which fungal disease spreads by seed and flowers?
Loose **** of wheat
557 of 559
Who first discovered the phenomenon of bacteriophage?
First twort in 1915 then D'Herelle in 1917
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After what time does bacteriophage population double?
25 minutes
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