A2 AQA, Biol4 exam, revision notes for respiration chapter 4

Heyy, these are just my notes from the Nelson Thornes textbook that I have summarised for me.

They do not have any diagrams, sorry but I hope it helps.

Please let me know if something need adding/removing.

Thanks, :D

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Respiration ­ Chapter 4

4.1 Glycolysis
Glucose cannot be used as directly by cell as a source of energy so cells use ATP as their
immediate source of energy.
This conversion of glucose into ATP takes place during cellular respiration and there are 2
different forms of cellular respiration depending…

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Respiration ­ Chapter 4

The Link Reaction

The pyruvate molecules produced in the cytoplasm during glycolysis are actively transported
into the matrix of the mitochondria.
Here pyruvate undergoes a series of reactions during which the following changes take
o The pyruvate is oxidised by removing hydrogen. This hydrogen is…

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Respiration ­ Chapter 4

o It regenerates the 4carbon molecule that combines with acetylcoenzyme A, which
would otherwise accumulate.

4.3 Electron Transport Chain

Hydrogen atoms from Krebs are taken into the ETC ­ where the energy of the electrons within
the hydrogen atoms is converted into ATP.

The Electron Transport…

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Respiration ­ Chapter 4

Production of Ethanol in Plants and Some Microorganisms

Anaerobic respiration leading to the production of ethanol occurs in organisms such as
certain bacteria and fungi (plus some plants in waterlogged conditions).
The pyruvate molecule formed at the end of glycolysis loses a molecule of CO2 and…


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