The Multi-Store Model of Memory by Jess Cowburn

These are all the evaluation points of the Multi-store model of Memory.

The Multi-Store Model of Memory


  • Serial Position Effect: Murdock, suggested the primacy/recency effect. This supports the Multi-store model of memory as the primary effect occurs due to the words being transferred to Long-term memory and the recency effect is due to the words still being rehearsed in the Short-term memory. Therefore supporting that STM and LTM are separate stores like the model suggests.
  • Korsakoff's Syndrome: where there STM remains intact but there transfer into LTM is impaired. Suggesting that STM and LTM are separate stores otherwise there would be problems with both stores.
  • KF Brain Damage: as a result of a motorbike accident his STM was severely damaged and could only manage 2 digits on the digit span test, however his STM was largely unaffected for visual material and sounds. His LTM also remained intact. KF supports this model as it shows that there is separate stores for STM and LTM or they would have both been affected by the accent.


  • The model is too simple: it assumes that there is a single store for STM and LTM however research has suggested that there are several types of STM (e.g. KF's STM was only affected for acoustic information).
  • Craik argues that there are different types of rehearsal: Elaborative rehearsal (e.g. giving meaning to something) meaning that it will be processed more deeply into LTM making it easier to remember. The model only considers maintenance/rote rehearsal which is a much more shallow level of processing. This criticise the model as it is the kind of rehearsal that you do not the amount.
  • Bekerian and Baddeley: investigated the BBC's use of jingles to inform listeners of frequency changes. Although people heard the jingles repeatedly they could not remember them. By hearing the jingles repeatedly you would expect them to remember them.
  • Through Rehearsal: the model argues the only way info is transferred is through rehearsal, however in everyday life most people spend very little time rehearsing although they are constantly storing info in LTM. Therefore criticising the role of rehearsal in the model.


For a 16 mark essay pick 5 evaluation point and write them in the PEE structure (Point Evidence Elaboration). 


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