Second Reich leading up to the war


Second Reich leading up to the war


  • The independence of the Army-not used as a political weapon during political infighting
  • Kaiser-did not have absolute power-Limitations i.e chncellor and could not dimiss the Rechstag but could dissolve
  • Position of chancellor-If held by someone with suffuenct political and diplometic skills could bring the main features of disjointed/fragmented constitution together and therefore maintain power balance aswell as taking advantage of qualities ie large landmass
  • use of moderate reforms and popular policies
  • Industrialisation-economic growth pre 1900 and 1900-1914 i.e germen faiming for efficient and less labour intensive


  • Fragmented political structure-lack of political continuation from one structure to another
  • Dominance of the conservative elites and traditional aristocrats. The main aim of the constitution adopted was to preserve the power of the elites
  • Social and economic changes-demand for social and constitutional reform had to be dealt with-social political tensions
  • demand for aggressive foreign policy from elties
  • sociey was divided along tranditional lines-predjucdices acted as barriers-lent itself to the maintainence of the political status quo
  • Kasier could only be removed by complete revolution
  • Dominace of prussia (federal state-retained individual governments/responsibility) resentment of imbalance of power and prussification-forceful unification and alignment with prussia


Growing social and political tensions (as a results of social and economic changes) tensions-catalyst was dynamic environment of industrialisation.
Contradiction between economic modernationation andlack of political reform- (MODERATE REFORM was used to maintain+popular policies, still lack of reform)
Imbalance of wealth and growth within social classes
MAIN POINT-acceleration of participation in politics




Great source, thanks!