youth justice

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  • Youth Justice
    • Social Construction
      • History
        • no sense of childhood before 1700s
        • Worked with parents as soon as they could
      • Factory act 1819 + 1833
        • restricted the working hours for 9-13 years old
        • Less income- lead to crime to live
      • 1880 schools compulsory
        • schools compulsory for 5-10 years old
        • When compulsory age increased less people working.
        • surveillance of the children during the day
      • Environmental theory
        • Concentric zone model - may steal to prevent homelessness
        • zone of transition- crime contagious
          • links to Matza's "drift" theory 1965
      • biological theories
        • Many young juveniles already have or had family members in YOI/prisons
      • Criminal age of responsibility
        • In UK is 10
          • However 10-17 years old not treated as adults- in youth courts and different sentences and prisons eg YOIs and training centres
          • 18+ treated as an adult but have separate prisons until age of 25
    • Policing and Courts
      • Labeling theory
        • Police label young people - hooligans
        • young people more likely to live up to their labels
        • moral panic "troublesome teens"
      • Trust
        • Young people don't trust the police
        • due to the way police victimize/label/treat young people
      • Net-widening
        • crime and disorder act 1998
        • ASBOs - more crimes for young people to commit Cohen 1985
      • Stats
        • 2012/13 1.7 million young people arrested
          • 126,809 were aged 10-17 years old
        • significant decrease sicne 2002/3 - 7,110 were sentenced to imediate custody
    • Youth offenders Institute
      • Stats
        • 2,932 assaults by young people in custody 2013/14 (7% increase on previous year)
        • 2013/14 - 1,318 incidents of self harm
        • 34 deaths in custody since 1990 under 18s
        • England and Wales are only second behind Turkey for the highest rate of imprisoning 10-17 years old in Europe
        • 85% of children and young people present with mental health problems
        • 2006/7 approx 3,000 children and young people incarcerated
        • 2013/14 5,714 incidents of restrictive physical interventions (RPI)
        • The average population of young people in custody in 2013/14 under 18 - 1,216
          • 21% reduction on previous year
          • 56% reduction on 2003/4
        • 2004- Adam Rickwood (14) and Gareth Myatt(15) - youngest people to commit self induced death in custody
          • Gareth Myatt had only been at Rainsbrook training centre 2 days
        • 2005 - 15 HMYOIs + 22 HMP+YOIs
      • Cons
        • Violent places, (Feltham)
        • violence to young people from other young people and staff
        • The worry about putting young criminals together, make friends,
          • less chance of rehabilitation more chance of re-offending
        • Many children in YOIs have numberacy and literacy skills 4 or 5 years below their chronilogical age
      • Pros
        • Still safer than placing them with adult criminals
        • a way for children and young people to realise the law, and appreciate they have broke the law
        • Safety for society
        • Are meant to be controlled conditions
    • Case Studies
      • James Bulger 2 years old - Liverpool - UK
        • Jon Venables and Robert Thompson 10 years old
      • Silje Redergard who 5 years old - Trondheim - Norway
        • Both boys unknown to public - no punishment

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