World at Risk 

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  • Created by: 287035
  • Created on: 10-04-14 09:41
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  • World at Risk
    • Global hazards
      • Hydro-meteorological and geophysical
      • Context and chronic hazards
      • Risk= F x V/CC
      • Changing risks, lack of alternatives, benefits vs costs, risk perception
    • G.H. trends
      • 1. Increase in reported hazards
      • 2. Increase and fluctuations in geophysical hazards
      • 3. HM hazards increased sharply
      • Statistics- no universally agreed definition of 'disaster', direct or indirect deaths?, remote places, political influence, complex to collect
      • Common in low/medium developed countries- lack resources and funds to develop prev. & pred. systems
      • Human factors- rapid pop. growth, deforestation and land degradation, urbanisation, poverty and politics
    • G.H. patterns
      • Philippines
      • California
      • Distribution of EQ- along plate boundaries- destructive and conservative boundaries
      • Distribution of volcanic eruptions- conservative, destructive and hotspots (localised area of lithosphere)
      • Distribution of landslides- mountainous, heavy rain/seismic activity
      • Distribution of droughts- dispersed pattern, 1/3 of the world's land surface
      • Distribution of floods- India/Bangladesh and China- 33%- 80% world's population
      • London
    • Climate change (causes)
      • Long term
        • Ice cores- air bubbles contain atmospheric CO2 and preserves O levels- last 8,000 years
        • Pollen- dated to show release- similar conditions
      • Medium
        • Historical records- cooler periods 1400 to 1450 and warmer period (medieval) 800-1400
        • Tree rings- thickness of annual growth- 10, 000 years ago- localised
      • Short term
        • Instrumental records- increase air temp by 0.74 from 1900 to 2006- s.l. rose by 1.8mm per year from 1961-2003- thermal expansion
        • Polar ice melt- NASA satellite  shows decline by 8.5% per decade
    • Impact of global warming
      • Direct
        • Arctic: vegetation shift, thawing of permafrost, increasing fires and insects, increase in UV, carbon cycle changes, marine species extinction,  land species at risk, hunting culture and decline of food security
        • Africa: water related issues, food insecurity, natural resources, increase in health issues, development of coastal zone, poverty, desertification
      • Indirect
        • Rise in sea levels
          • Bangladesh: 70% land= floodplains less that 6m above sea level, could lose 20% of land- displacing 40 mil., food supplies, damage to agricultural land- 65% subsistence farmers
          • Egypt: Nile- 1m rise- 15% habitable land- 7 million people
          • Netherlands: coastal lowlands, densely populated, 1m rise- $12,000 mil to defend
          • Eustatic- change in amount of water. Isostatic- m. of land due to loss or gain of mass
    • Coping with CC
      • Key players-governments, businesses, NGOs, communities and individuals
      • Adaptation: crops that adapt to new climates, flood defences, water resource management
      • Mitigation: taxing CO2 producing companies, increase use of renewable energy, modifying agri. processes, tree planting, energy conservation
    • Challenge of G.H. for the future
      • Water shortages (physical& economic scarcity), conflict over water, food insecurity,
      • Sustainable development
        • 1. Eco-friendly and green stratergies
        • 2. Providing community based solutions
  • Global hazards
    • Hydro-meteorological and geophysical
    • Context and chronic hazards
    • Risk= F x V/CC
    • Changing risks, lack of alternatives, benefits vs costs, risk perception

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