Working class crime

  • Created by: edolling
  • Created on: 25-03-19 22:27
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  • Working - Class Crime
    • Strain/ Anomie Theory  - people e have in devanict behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goal legitaimately.  Merton combines cultural and structural factors from durkheim anomie, structural is societies unequal opportunity structure and cultural is the emphasis of success and goals.
      • Merton says deviance is from strain of two things. 1. The goals that society encourages us to achieve. 2. What industrial structures of society allows them to active. He gives the example of the American dream everyone wants it but not everyone can achieve it through legitimate ways whcihxbis why people turn to crime. As they 're disadvantaged through their ways of achievement  but they still want these goals which results in frustration which causes them to turn to crime.
        • 5 adaptation of strain.
          • 3. Ritualism - when popel give up on trying to achieve the goals and have internalised legitimate means to follow rules usually lower end of middle class.
          • 2. Innovation - when goals of money success is accepted use new illegitimate ways to achieve - lower end of class structure face greatest pressure
          • 4. Retreatism - when both goals and ,egitamte means are rejected by drop outs and out casts
          • 1. Conformity - people accept culturally approved goals and try to achieve them illegally
          • 5. Individuals reject goals and means and replace them with new ones for change and a new society
    • Left realism - crime occurs due to three factors, relative deprivation  marginally and subcultures
      • Relative deprivation occurs because we live in a media saturated society and so we are always go based with different images about what we should have or what others have which we don't and so even if we don't feel like we are deprived we are because we don't have what others do as a result people can turn to crime. This is common amongst working-class as they feel it the must. As a result of this deprivation we feel marginalised as we lack opportunity to gain these images and items and so we cannot compete in the consumer culture which means  we turn to crime to get what we what.
    • Control Theory  - when social controls aren't working properly crime is created. HIRSHI - people commit crime when they aren't integrated or attached. Strength of bonds create their strength of attachment.
      • Involvement - how busy we are so if we have time and space  fear of reputation being ruined.
      • Commitment - our personal investment, what we ate to lose
      • Belief - if we think we should obey norms and vakues of society.
      • Attachment  how much we care about people's opinion , being attached it the family and friends
    • Marxists and Neo Marxist -  they believe ghat society is criminogenic due to capitalism. And so becaey or this crime in natural and inevitable as it is a response used against competitiveness and inequality within society which many from disadvantaged groups face like working class.  Selective law enforcement means there one rule for the rich and one rule for the working class so the police focus on working class .
      • Neo - Marxists claim that working class are voluntarksts which mean that they have free will and they experience constraints played by the ruling class as a result they then make choices about how they should react to these bad experie does within society and for them this is through crime.
    • Labelling theory - what makes something deviant is the label given to it.
      • This means that working class are more likely to be labelled as deviance which in turn causesbthem go be deviance and criminal as a self fulfilling prophecy is created. As well as this there are selective law enforcement and over policing of these groups. As the police think they are all criminals which in turn means they are targeted more even if they haven't done anything wrong.
      • Due to labelled given to working class people they 're more likely to do crime as they are seen in this way . And because there is a lack of funding not all crime can be prosecuted so the police pick and choose who and what they want to target making some criminals and others not.
    • Postmodern - crime can be seen as edgework, where the individuals are excited and thebthrills form the crime explored the boundaries between legal and illegal and many peop,e like this excitement.
      • Thrills and spills, are a motivation for why people commit crime. Andbtehee thrills appeal to everyone especiallybworking and lowernclasses as their ways of life are controlled by deviance and the thrills and risk taking and they gain status amongst their group and so they 're most likely to commit crime due to the thrills and excitement.
    • Subcultural theory - social structures in society cause crime.
      • Working class juviniellal delinquency  particulary boys say they turn  to crime because of the strain and frustation they  face.
        • Cohen says that working class youth believe in mainstream goals but don't have the opportunity to achieve them as they suffer status frustration and react by developing an alternative set of values delinquency subculture so they face anomie. Suffer from cultural deprivation and a lack of skills to achieve which results in them creating their own culture through delinquency.
          • Cloward and Ohiln - agree that w.c are denied opportunity but what there are different social circumstances the boys have and find themselves in whcih causes them to turn to crime . 1. Criminal - commit useful crimes like theft, stable working class areas a criminal career structure. 2. Conflict - socially disorgansied areas lack of cohesion like gangs. 3. Retreatsist - double failures can't achieve in mainstream goals, criminal or conflict so turn to drugs and are drop outs.
    • Right realism - see crime as a growing social problem which undermines social cohesion and social communities. They assume that people are naturally inclined to commit crime others is little or no chance of them being caught.
      • Rational choice - right realists say that people make a rational choice about whether or not they should commit crime. Crime can only take place if,  the individual is motivated, there is an availability of opportunity and there is a lack of capeable gaurdians. As a result working class more likely to commit crime as they face all three.
      • Murray says underclass are the main causes of crime. The are the work shy welfare dependent population. These people are genrrally lower and working class fromncoincil estates they, fail to socialise the next generation properly and so as a  result they aren't stable and are not aware of the value consensus and so the families a whole see nothing wrong with crime.


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