Why did the Cold War begin?

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  • Why did the Cold War start?
    • Grand Alliance and end of WWII
      • Ideological differences
        • Woodrow Wilsons - liberal capitalism
        • 1917 -  Bolshevik takeover - world communism
      • Tensions 1917-1944
        • Russian civil war - supported Bolshevik enemies
        • Refusal of  Soviets to honour debts to West
      • WWII issues
        • Failure to inform Stalin of  nuclear bomb
        • Appeasement towards Hitler
        • Churchill calls Bolsheviks: 'ferocious barbarians'
      • Liberation of Europe -  Reorganisation Conferences
        • Tehran 1943 (Churchill, Stalin & Roosevelt)
        • Yalta  1945 (Churchill, Stalin & Roosevelt)
        • Potsdam 1945 (Atlee, Stalin and Truman)
          • Poland and Germany (4 zones)
            • Yalta  1945 (Churchill, Stalin & Roosevelt)
    • American Actions
      • Dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima 1945
        • End WWII after Nagasaki
        • Not inform Stalin - increase mistrust & suspicion
      • Kennan's Long Telegram 1947
        • Says communism needs to be contained
        • Change in US policy from accommodation to contrainment
      • Truman Doctrine 1947
        • USA aid any anti-communisstgroup - prevent spread of communism
        • Response to Greek Civil War
      • Marshall Plan 1948
        • Provide financial support to war-torn Europe
        • All countries in Europe eligible BUT conditions made it impossible for communist states to apply
        • Seen by USSR as dollar imperialism
      • NATO 1949
        • Military alliance of USA, Canada and most of Europe to defend the West
        • Berlin crisis highloghted need for more coordinated approach by the West
      • NSC-68
        • Return to conventional warfare - funding to fight communism
          • Change from containment to 'roll back' communism
      • McCathyism& the Red Scare
        • Senate McCathy condemned communism - attempt to revive his political career
          • Sparked anti-communist hysteria
          • Gained support of public
            • Spread of communism feared - embed anti communism views in US society
        • Accused many who worked for the goverment of disloyal but had no evidence
          • Many still believed him
            • Revealed as a liar
    • Soviet Actions
      • Stalin's sphere of influence in Eastern Europe
        • Buffer zone or expansionism
      • Cominform 1947
        • Coordinate communist  parties
      • Czech Crisis 1948
        • Communists expected to do badly in election - stage a coup d'etat
        • Soviets force them to reject Marshall aid
        • Communists gain control without direct help from USSR
      • Comecon 1949
        • Response to Marshall Plan
      • USSR get the bomb 1949
    • Churchill's Iron Curtain Speech (1946) - need for alliance between US & UK
      • Classed as 'warmonger' by USSR
    • Berlin Blockade (1948-49)
      • Stalin severed links between East and West Berlin
      • Airlift - showed Western resistance
      • Stalin forces to consede defeat and lift blockade
      • Formal  division of East and West Germany 1949
    • Communist takeover of China
    • Korean War (1950-53)
      • Korea divided after WWII
        • Communist North invade capitalist South
      • USA support south to prevent spread of commuism
        • 'Roll back' communism policy
      • Armistice reached - remain split

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