Waves

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  • Created by: Clare
  • Created on: 19-11-12 17:32
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  • Waves
    • Waves transfer energy
    • Transverse
      • Water
      • Particle movement is at right angles to the direction
      • Up and down- most common
    • Longitudinal
      • Sound
      • Compressions to pass on energy
      • Travels parallel to the direction of the wave
    • Interferance
      • When 2 or more waves come together
      • 2 peaks come together
        • Constructive
          • Wave doubles in size
            • Both waves continue in same direction
      • 1 peak and 1 trough come together
        • Destructive
          • Wave cancels out- no sound
            • Both waves continue in same direction
    • Reflection
      • Waves bounce back off the surface at the same angle. Angle of incidence= angle of reflection
      • Ray diagram: mirror, normal line, angle of incidence, angle of reflection, incident and reflected ray
      • When waves hit a shiny surface they change direction
      • Shiny smooth surfaces give a clear image
      • Waves  change direction but stay in straight lines (optical fibres)
      • Incident ray IN
    • Refraction
      • Light and sound travel and different speeds in different mediums
        • This is due to different densities
      • Air and Glass
        • Glass= solid more dense
          • Waves slow down and bend TOWARDS the normal line
            • Think: busy supermarket (more dense) go TOWARDS mum (normal)
      • Doesn't occur at 90 degrees
      • Angle of refraction is less than angle of incidence
        • After leaving glass block the ray is bent back to it's original direction
    • Diffraction
      • Affects radiowaves
      • Bending of a wave around an obstacle, past an object or through a gap
      • No properties are changed during diffraction- only DIRECTION
      • Travelling through a gap- wave travels straight on then expands outward (semicircle)
      • Travelling around a corner- once past corner expands circularly
    • Parts of a wave
      • Wavelength
        • Distance from peak to peak
      • Amplitude
        • Height from middle line
      • Frequency
        • Number of waves passing a point in a second
          • Measured in Hertz (Hz)
          • Frequency= no. of waves/ time in secs
      • Peak/ Trough
      • Wave speed= frequency x wavelength
        • Wave speed- how fast a wave travels through space

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