Waves

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  • Waves
    • Types of waves
      • Longitudinal; oscillation is parallel to transfer of energy
        • eg sound and seismic waves
        • Needs a medium (particles)
        • Key words; compression and rarefraction
      • Transverse; oscillation is perpendicular to transfer of energy
        • eg light, radio, rope and water waves
        • No medium needed (can travel through a vacuum)
        • Key words; peak, wavelength, frequency, amplitude and trough
    • Frequency= waves per second
    • Diffraction- spreading out of waves eg a gap in the wall.
      • A gap size similar to the wavelength causes a lot of spreading
      • A gap size much larger than the wavelength causes little spreading
    • Refraction- waves change direction and speed when they change substance eg glass and air.
      • think of tractor moving on pavement and mud
    • The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      • Gamma, xrays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, microwave, radiowaves
        • "Granny's Xbox Uses Volts In My Room"
      • Gamma Rays
        • High frequency, short wavelength
      • Radiowaves
        • Low frequency, long wavelegth
      • The wavelengths vary from about 10^(–15) metres to more than 10^(4) metres.
      • All  travel at the same speed through a vacuum
    • Communication
      • Radiowaves
        • Tv signals
        • Bluetooth
        • Radio
      • Microwaves
        • Phones
        • Satellite Tv
      • Infrared
        • Remote controls
        • Fibre optic cables
          • By using these waves there is no loss of signal- clear image
      • Visible light
        • Fibre optic cables
          • By using these waves there is no loss of signal- clear image
        • Cameras
    • Reflection
      • Angle of incidence= angle of reflection
      • The image produced in a plane mirror is virtual
    • Sound
      • Echos are sound wave reflected
      • Frequency= pitch
      • Amplitude= loudness
      • Sound waves are longitudinal waves and cause vibrations in a medium, which are detected as sound
    • Red Shift
      • Doppler Effect
        • If a wave source is moving relative to an observer there will be a change in the observed wavelength and frequency.
      • Red stars are moving away
        • Proof that the universe is expanding
      • Cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR)= electromagnetic radiation filling the universe. It comes from radiation that was present shortly after the beginning of the universe
        • The ‘Big Bang’ theory is currently the only theory that can explain the existence of CMBR

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