Water examples

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  • Water Cycle and Insecurity Examples
    • Water Budgets
      • Tropical (Brazil, Indonesia)
        • high runoff
        • high precipitation & slightly lower evaporation
      • Temperate (Chile)
        • negative water balance
        • higher evaporation & slightly lower precipitation
      • Polar (Iceland, Arctic)
        • low evaporation & precipitation
    • River regimes
      • Amazon
        • continuous rainy climate
        • annual flooding
        • wetter & drier season
      • Indus
        • high snowmelt
        • short, heavy precipitation
      • Yukon
        • snowmelt in spring & summer
        • frozen in winter
        • large seasonal variability
    • Drought
      • Sahel
        • desertification
        • overgrazing
        • deforestation
        • global warming/el nino
        • starvation
        • crops destroyed
      • Australia
        • el nino
        • dry year 2006/low rainfall
        • sheep & crops died
        • food prices rose
        • water quality declined
        • biodiversity loss
    • Uk Flood Events
      • 2012
        • disrupted jet stream
        • thunderstorms
        • flash floods
        • 8000 homes & businesses flooded
        • £600 mill crops affected
      • 2007
        • many counties across the UK
        • low pressure & wet past few months
        • soil already saturated
        • rivers meeting
        • power cuts
        • houses and businesses lost
        • crop damage
        • loss of water supply
        • RAF & emergency services
    • Salt water encroachment
      • Tunisia
        • already water stressed
        • only 50% of all water resources can be used without restriction
        • desalination plants planned
    • Over abstraction of rivers
      • Thames
        • to supply water to London area
        • eco system damage
    • Trans boundary water conflict
      • River Nile
        • runs through 10 countries
        • 8/10 cooperate
        • Egypt has dominance over Nile
        • majority of water used in Egypt & Sudan
        • potential for conflict grows as countries develop
      • Colorado river
        • heavy source of irrigation
        • water rights between states allocated
        • California allocated 20%
        • native Americans claim water rights
        • 90% water used before it gets to Mexico
    • Water transfer
      • China
        • not enough water in North China
        • South-North transfer project
        • transfers water from Yangtze to Yellow river
        • man made rivers wil transfer water
        • people living along the Yangtze worry there will be shortages for them
    • Sustainable approaches to water
      • Singapore
        • 2 desalination plants
        • recycled water
        • water sent though treatment plants after being used
        • reservoirs, canals & drains collect rainwater
        • water imported from Johor in Malaysia
    • Integrated drainage basin management
      • Colorado
        • 1992 Colorado compact
        • saving storm water by redirecting it
        • re using waste water
        • repairing any leaks
        • amount of available water determines how much is supplies to each state

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