Wartime government and organisation in Russia 1914-1915

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  • Wartime Government and Organisation
    • 1914
      • Disputes over the organisation of the war effort
      • July- Tsarist Government set up 'military zones' within which all civilian authority were suspended, and the military assumed command
        • This was opposed by the liberal zemstva-regarded the government as insensitive to the needs of the people
          • Believed that civilians had a major part to play in running the war
      • The government's desision to prohibit the sale of alcohol at the end of 1914 was resented and evaded
        • Vodka was regarded as a near essential so peasants and workers distilled their own
          • This meant the government lost some valuable tax revenue from the local sales
      • The zemstva established a 'Union of Zemstva' to provide the medical facilities which the State seemed to neglect
    • 1915
      • June- existing zemstva and municipal dumas joined together to form the All-Russian Union of Zemstva and cities, known as Zemgor
        • Was chaired by Prince Lvov and claimed the right to help the Tsar's government in thee war effort, but it was not allowed any direct infuence
          • Soon turned into a liberal focus for discontent
      • August- some of the deputies (from the 4th Duma) demanded that the Tsar change his ministers and establish a 'government of public confidence'
        • They were effectively asking for a constitutional monarchy, in which they would have a dominant voice
      • September- Nicholas II suspended the sitting of the Duma and it remained officially closed until January 1917
      • September- defeats in Galicia led Nicholas to make the decision to become Commander-In-Chief of the Russian army
      • Rasputin began to meddle in political appoitments and policy decisions
        • Many changes in Ministers after September + 3 or 4 changes in some ministries put down to Rasputin's influence

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