Nicholas II: Overview

NIcholas II Key Sections

Life of the People

Opposition

War and Revolution

The economy

Social Structure

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  • Nicholas II
    • Life of the People
      • In 1905, 20% of peasants had ownership of their land, by 1915, it was 50%
      • Jewish Pogroms existed, and he imposed Russification, like his father
      • Working conditions were very poor and averaged 11 hours, 6 days a week
    • War and Revolution
      • Russo-Japanese war - Russia wanted to expand territory but Japan declared war
      • The war failed with its objective to gain support for the Tsar, and Russian prestige was damaged
      • Among other grievances, the Russo-Japanese war was a cause of the 1905 revolution
      • In 1907, he formed the Triple Entente with Britain and France, a military alliance
      • In September 1915, he assumed head of the army on the Eastern Front
    • Opposition
      • A priest, Gapon began the Assembly of Russian workers, he stated a petition
      • When the petition reached the Winter Palace, it was attacked by police; the result was Bloody Sunday
      • Potemkin Mutiny was part of the 1905 Revolution which also saw 110,000 workers on strike
      • 3000 suspects were convicted and executed between 1906 and 1909 (Stolypin's necktie)
    • The Economy
      • Trans-Siberian railway became Witte's special project; he also introduced the Gold Standard, neglected agriculture
      • Witte's policy of State Capitalism brought foriegn investment
      • Stolypin's 3 crucial reforms: freed peasants from commune, consolidating holdings and abolished redemption dues
      • Agriculture production rose from 45.0 million to 61.7 million between 1906 to 1913
    • Structure of Government
      • 1894 speech, denouncing the senseless dreams of those who wanted democratic reform
      • 1905 October Manifesto. It granted freedom of conscience, speech, meeting and association
      • Under the Duma, no law could be passed without its consent and prisoners could not be held without charge
      • The Statute of State Security, The University Statute and the Zemstvo Act brought each under the Tsar's control

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