Vietnam

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  • Vietnam
    • Vietnam and the USA
      • Vietnam was once a French Colony
        • After the war, the French tried to re-establish control of Vietnam
          • America gave aid to France as Ho Chi Minh was communist
            • The French were defeated by the Viet Minh
      • Japan invaded in WW2
        • The Viet Minh fought back
          • Lead by Ho Chi Minh
        • After the war, Vietnam became an independent republic
      • Geneva Agreement
        • Vietnam was divided in two
        • Ho Chi Minh lead the north
          • The north was communist
        • Ngo Dihn Diem lead the south
          • The south was 'democratic' and supported by the americans
            • They hoped he would prevent the spread of communism
      • National Liberation Front
        • Also known as the Vietcong
        • Their aim was to reunite Vietnam
      • Domino Theory
        • Believed if Vietnam became communist then surrounding countries would become communist
        • The USA thought that it would affect all of asia
          • They were even more worried because the USSR and China were also communist
            • They are huge countries with a large influence
      • The Gulf Of Tonkin Incident
        • Provided an excuse for the USA to escalate activity in Vietnam
        • The USS Maddox claimed that they had been attacked by North Vietnamese Torpedoes
        • Johnson ordered bombing raids and more troops to Vietnam
    • The Armies
      • The USA
        • Well Supplied
          • Had heavy air power
            • But they couldn't use it
          • Unlimited economic resources
          • Access to advanced technology
          • 2.8 million troops available
        • Effective Tactics
          • Bombings and raids
            • Bombs hit their own troops
            • Chemical Weapons
              • Agent Orange
                • Highly toxic 'weedkiller'
              • Napalm
                • Burned through the skin
                • Caused the deaths of innocent civilians
          • Air power
            • Couldn't risk hitting their own troops
          • Search and destroy tactics
            • Killed innocent Civilians
              • Caused a loss in support from US citizens
            • Intel was often outdated
        • Public Support
          • Didn't have support of the peasants
          • Didn't accept the body count that they were leaving behind
          • Average age was nineteen
        • Committed and skilful soldiers
          • Soldiers lacked experience
          • Weren't fighting for anything important to them
            • Low morale
            • Some soldiers started taking drugs
          • Bad teamwork
            • Fragging happened throughout the ranks
              • Fragging - deliberately killing officers
          • Only in Vietnam for one year
            • Just when they had become experienced, the soldiers left again
      • Vietcong
        • Well supplied
          • Supplied by the USSR and China
          • Their technology wasn't as advanced as the USA
            • Air power was lacking in particular
            • Had 8000 anti-aircraft guns
            • 200 anti-aircraft missile sites
        • Effective Tactics
          • They knew the terrain, The Americans didn't
          • They had booby traps set up
            • Spike pits
            • Trip wire traps
          • Hit and run tactics
            • They fought the American forces and then ran away before they could retaliate
            • Guerrilla warfare
              • The Vietcong had no uniforms
                • Allowed them to blend in with civilians
              • Had the Ho Chi Minh trail
                • The trail changed continuously
                • The trail ran straight through the jungle
                • Supplied weapons to the VC
              • Had a terror campaign running in South Vietnam against their opponents
        • Support of the locals
          • Won support of south Vietnamese peasants that were alienated by Diem
          • Not everyone wanted the war to happen
          • Helped the local people. I.E: Farmers
        • Committed soldiers
          • It was their own territory
          • Unlimited supply of soldiers
          • Experienced in jungle warfare
    • Opposition to the war
      • Political
        • Diem was a corrupt dictator
        • USA claimed to be fighting for democracy
      • Media
        • Television showed exactly what was happening in Vietnam
        • Showed everyone what US soldiers were doing
      • US Casualties
        • Injuries increased over the years
        • Ex-soldiers formed Vietnam Veterans against the war
      • Tet Offensive
        • Indicated the war wasn't going to be won
        • The VC attacked hundreds of cities and towns
        • Cons to the TET Offensive
          • Vietcong
            • Hue was destroyed
            • Lost 10,000 soldiers
            • No one from South Vietnam rose up and joined them
          • USA
            • Raised a lot of questions about what really happened in the war
            • Lost a lot of soldiers
              • Gave communists a psychological victory
            • Johnson gave up on being re-elected
            • Attitudes towards the war changed
            • £20 billion was wasted per year
            • The media turned against the war
      • Operation Phoenix
        • Arrested a lot of VC members, but also arrested a lot of civilians
        • Tortured them to get intel
    • Pressures
      • Congress didn't want to waste US money
      • Nixon had promised to end US involvement in Vietnam during the 1968 elections
      • Didn't want to lose to communism
      • The war was unpopular with the American people
    • Strategies
      • Peace negotiations with North Vietnam
      • Signed peace treaty
      • Handed the war over to South Vietnamese troops
      • Increased bombing + raids on VC in Cambodia

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