Value Freedom

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  • Value Freedom
    • Early Socilologists
      • Comte and Durkheim - They regarded sociology as a science
      • Durkheim
        • "Facts can be/should be separated from values"
      • Positivism - this is linked to:
        • Ontology - Study of Nature
        • Epistemology - Theory of Knowledge
      • VALUE FREEDOM NEEDS TO BE OBJECTIVE AND IMPARTIAL
    • Recent Years
      • OBJECTIVE Nature of Social Research
      • Right-Winged Sociologists
        • They Saw Value Freedom was open to doubt but saw no conflict between and pursuit to a "GOOD SOCIETY"
          • To find the true principles of a good, ordered and integrated society
        • This would help uncover scientific facts and not let the sociologists interpretation impose his view on society
    • Max Weber
      • "The Sociologist should separate his role as a sociologist form his other roles. sociology should be used a a mean of expressing personal preference"
    • Popper
      • Objectivity is achieved not at the level of the individual scientist, the scientist is not deprived of their human roles
    • MARXIST APPROACH
      • Political Struggle of the Capitalist Society
      • Working Class only see the TRUE nature of Social Oraginisation
      • Ideological Hegemony
      • The Positivist Approach cannot be applied to social life - truth is not obtained through impartiality
      • Societies organisation is concealed to SERVE the interests of the R/C
      • Conservatism in Disguise
    • Interpretivists
      • No such thing as Objective Truth
      • Social Reality and Knowledge are Subjectively Constructed
    • Soft Relativism
      • Sociology is inevitably POLITICAL not Scientific
      • A Sociologist takes sides
      • Choice of Topic
        • Personal view influence
      • Choice of Method
        • Theoretical Method
      • During Research
        • 50/50 - both researcher and interviewee need to understand eachother
      • Publication
    • Hard Relativism
      • GOMM
        • Value Free is unsociological
        • Sociologists react to political, economic and social issues/ problems
        • Political group in charge has the power that shapes reality and choose what is "Worthy Research"
        • It's a Political Nature not Scientific
        • "When a sociologist attempts to divorce himself from  his own values to become a "professional sociologist" he is adopting a new set of values not becoming value free"
      • GOULDNER
        • ANTI-MINOTAUR: Myth of Value Free Sociology (1973)
          • Minotaur - Greek myth creature "head of a bull, body of a man"
          • We cannot disapprove the existence of Minotaur - a belief is not untrue or absurd - Value Freedom ignores experience
        • Its impossible to be free from various forms of value judgement in the social sciences
          • Dehumanised Sociologists - they have betrayed themselves (Sociology) to gain social and academic respectability
      • Howard Becker
        • "Who's Side are We On?"
          • All knowledge is political, serving some interests at expense of others - sociologists choose ideas which interests them
    • FEMINIST APPROACH
      • Value Free scientific claims of malestream sociology
      • "This serves the ideological justification for the subordination of women" - Oakley (1974)
      • "Reduces women as a side issue from the start" - invisibility of women is a male structured view rather than a superficial flaw
      • Sociology puts forward a detached and impartial view of reality - presents the perspective of men
      • Radical Fem. - to carry out more studies on women need to create a sociology for women by women
        • Disadvantage - Studies will be done by women on women (biased ideas)
        • This will not only be about women - it will confront and challenge male supremacy - This "institutionalizes women's inequality"
        • Women a oppressed and their oppression is primary

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