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  • Utilitariansim
    • consequential
    • teleological
    • 1. most useful end causes the most happiness/pleasure
      • 2. moral goods are actions that cause the most happiness
        • 3. 'The greatest happiness principle'
    • Jeremy Bentham
      • 'Mankind has been placed under the governance of two sovereign leaders, pain and pleasure.'
      • the hedonic calculus-measurement of happiness
        • Intensity
          • Duration
            • Certainty
              • Propinquity
                • Extent
                  • Richeness
                    • Purity
      • Swine Theory-gang **** creates the highest pleasure.
      • ACT: each situation is unique-use the hedonic calculus to see if it produces the most util.
    • John Stuart Mill
      • Higher and lower pleasures
        • Higher-intellectual
        • Lower-bodily
      • RULE: rules from the 'Principle of utility'. based on the past.
        • STRONG: never breaks the rules
        • WEAK: relativistic
    • Strengths
      • a democratic morality (promotes happiness)
      • Clear decision making systems
      • higher and lower pleasures avoids the swine theory
      • it is natural to consider consiquences
    • Weaknesses
      • predictions could be wrong
      • difficult to quantify pleasure
      • happiness is subject
      • some pain is good (childbirth)


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