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  • Created by: Rachel
  • Created on: 30-04-14 14:46
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  • Utilitarianism
    • Main Principles
      • act is moral if it brings about the greatest happiness for the greatest number - hedonistic
      • relativistic - no fixed moral riules
      • Teleological/ consequentialist- focused on aim or consequence of action
    • J.Bentham
      • calculate outcome with most pleasure and least pain - QUANTITATIVE
      • Hedonic calculus - DICE.RRP
        • measures moral value of an act by reference to consequence
        • Peter Vardy, Paul Grosch- happiness in quantity not quality, predicts consequences, happiness/pain subjective
      • 'two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure'
      • universal ethical hedonism - every one has equal right to happiness
      • act - consequences of each act depends
      • non-elitist, industrial revolution,
    • JS Mill
      • 'Better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied'
      • adapted Benthams, thought some pleasures more valuable than others - QUALITATIVE
        • didn't agree with act justifiying violence for majority- gang rape
      • shouldn't aim for pleasure but for happiness and that of society
      • wished to avoid idea Utilitarianism was theory of base gratification
      • Higher and lower pleasures
      • rule - action is right when it can be made into a rule that leads to greatest good rather than being based on individual circumstance
        • golden rule
      • harm principle- majority may not interfere with minority unless it prevents harm to others
    • Preference Utilitarianism
      • RM Hare
      • distinguishes between pleasure and best interest. not everything that is pleasurable is in best interest
    • Weaknesses
      • Ignores Minority- holocaust
      • hedonic calc too clinical
    • Strengths


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