urban issues and challenges

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  • challenges in the urban environment
    • urbanisation
      • urbanisation: growth in proportion of a country's population living in urban areas
      • Reasons/ causes
        • rural-urban migration
          • push factors
            • natural disasters
            • less need for farm workers due to new technology
            • desertification
            • war/conflict
            • to achieve a better quality of life
          • Pull factors
            • better/more jobs
            • better education
            • join other family members
    • urban Growth - opportunities
      • social opportunities
        • better access to services e.g. healthcare and education
        • better access to resources e.g. clean water and electricity
      • Economic opportunities
        • growth of urban industrial areas
        • Developing industries = more jobs
      • Case study: Favela-Barrio project (rio de Jsnerio)
        • more than  600 squatter settlements in Rio
        • froject ran from 1995 - 2008
        • involved 73 favela's & 253,000 people
        • social Improvements
          • Day care centres
          • Adult education classes
          • services to help with alcohol and drug addiction
        • Economic Improvemnts
          • helping people to get legal ownership of properties
          • Training schemes to help people get better jobs
        • environmental Improvement
          • wooden buildings replaced with brick
          • streets widened and paved
          • New rubbish collection services
    • Urban growth - challenges
      • badly built and overcrowded
      • no access to basic services
      • unclean conditions- lack of medical services = poor health
      • high unemployment = crime
      • may not be access to education = skilled jobs unavailable
    • Case study: Lagos
      • biggest city in Nigeria
      • social opportunities
        • Better healthcare
        • 68% of population have a secondary education (40% don't attend primary school in rural areas)
        • access to electricity for cooking and lighting. business can also be developed
        • water treatments plants provide safe water to city
      • Economic opportunities
        • Rural Nigeria is poor
        • Rapid city growth = more construction jobs
        • thriving film and music industry
        • Lagos is home to the many banks and industries
      • social challenges
        • over 60% of the population live in slums e.g. Makoko
        • houses are built on wooden stilts in lagoon
        • communal toilets shared by many i.e. 15 households & most waste goes into the lagoon which may cause health problems (e.g, cholera)
        • crime levels are high in Makoko and run by 'Area Boys'
        • water can be sourced from a communal water source which can be sourced up to 3 Km away
        • electricity comes from illegal connections that often cut
      • environmental challenges
        • only about 40% of rubbish is officially collected
        • waste disposable and emissions from factories are not controlled leading to air and water pollution
        • traffic congestion is really bad - you may be faced with 2 hour waits during rush hour
      • economic challenges
        • there aren't enough formal jobs- people have to make money other ways such as scavenging in Olusosun rubbish dump for things to sell

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