unit C4

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  • unit C4
    • flame tests
      • litum = red
      • soudium = yellow
      • potassium = liliac
    • electronic configerration
      • how the elctrons are positioned around the nucleas
      • the first shell needs 2 electrons to fill it  all shells after it need 8 electrons
      • as you go along the rows of the perodic tabel the electron shells fill up if it has a full outer shell it will be more stabel
    • blanced equations
      • total mass of reactans = total mass of products
      • no atoms are lost or made during chemical reactions
      • how to balance an equation
        • write out the word equation
          • ues perodic tabel to make symbol equation
    • ionic covalent and metallic bonding
      • bonds are made when two substances share electrons to create a full outer electron shell
      • ionic bonding works by substances gaining and losing electrons
        • for example soudium and fluorine the sodium would lose an electron giving it a one plus charge and a full outer shell the fluorine than gains that electron giving it a one minus charge and a full outer shell
      • most non metals are diatomic as they can only exist stably if two of the same type of atom share electrons
      • metallic bonding
        • in this outer shell electrons are free to move this actually makes strong electromagnetic forces of attraction holding the metal atoms together this makes a metallic bond
    • the periodic table
      • group one metals
        • they have low melting points
        • very reactive
        • low boiling points
        • soft
        • low density's
        • become more reactive going down the group
        • when added to water makes alkalis
      • group seven halogens
        • these are all toxic
        • they have low melting and boiling points
          • they form coloured vapours
        • they can be solids liquids or gasses at room temperature depending on the halogen
        • halogens can be used for a displacement reaction for example
          • sodium bromide + chlorine--> sodium chloride + bromine
            • so the bromine  has been displaced by the chlorine
              • this happens because the chlorine is more reactive so if you were to add iodine to sodium bromide nothing would happen as it is less reactive therefore for a displacement reaction you need a more relative halogen
      • group 0 Nobel gasses
        • all have complete outer electron shells
        • very unreactive
          • known as inert so will not react with anything
        • they all have low boiling points which increase as you go own the period
          • also have low density's
  • atomic structure
    • unit C4
      • flame tests
        • litum = red
        • soudium = yellow
        • potassium = liliac
      • electronic configerration
        • how the elctrons are positioned around the nucleas
        • the first shell needs 2 electrons to fill it  all shells after it need 8 electrons
        • as you go along the rows of the perodic tabel the electron shells fill up if it has a full outer shell it will be more stabel
      • blanced equations
        • total mass of reactans = total mass of products
        • no atoms are lost or made during chemical reactions
        • how to balance an equation
          • write out the word equation
            • ues perodic tabel to make symbol equation
      • ionic covalent and metallic bonding
        • bonds are made when two substances share electrons to create a full outer electron shell
        • ionic bonding works by substances gaining and losing electrons
          • for example soudium and fluorine the sodium would lose an electron giving it a one plus charge and a full outer shell the fluorine than gains that electron giving it a one minus charge and a full outer shell
        • most non metals are diatomic as they can only exist stably if two of the same type of atom share electrons
        • metallic bonding
          • in this outer shell electrons are free to move this actually makes strong electromagnetic forces of attraction holding the metal atoms together this makes a metallic bond
      • the periodic table
        • group one metals
          • they have low melting points
          • very reactive
          • low boiling points
          • soft
          • low density's
          • become more reactive going down the group
          • when added to water makes alkalis
        • group seven halogens
          • these are all toxic
          • they have low melting and boiling points
            • they form coloured vapours
          • they can be solids liquids or gasses at room temperature depending on the halogen
          • halogens can be used for a displacement reaction for example
            • sodium bromide + chlorine--> sodium chloride + bromine
              • so the bromine  has been displaced by the chlorine
                • this happens because the chlorine is more reactive so if you were to add iodine to sodium bromide nothing would happen as it is less reactive therefore for a displacement reaction you need a more relative halogen
        • group 0 Nobel gasses
          • all have complete outer electron shells
          • very unreactive
            • known as inert so will not react with anything
          • they all have low boiling points which increase as you go own the period
            • also have low density's
    • aranged in order of assending proton number
    • the rows = number of electrons inthe outer shell
    • couloms or periods = how many electron shells it has
    • atoms are made up of a neclueus eith netrons with no charge and protons with a postive + charge
      • it has electrons flying round it bound by strong forces of attraction
    • an atom has an overall nutral charge
  • the perodic table is a table of elments made by only one kind of atom
    • atomic structure
      • aranged in order of assending proton number
      • the rows = number of electrons inthe outer shell
      • couloms or periods = how many electron shells it has
      • atoms are made up of a neclueus eith netrons with no charge and protons with a postive + charge
        • it has electrons flying round it bound by strong forces of attraction
      • an atom has an overall nutral charge

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