Unit B451: An Introduction to Physical Education Part 2

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  • Unit B451: An Introduction to Physical Education Part 2
    • The importance of a warm-up and cool-down.
      • The warm-up
        • Warm up should be incorparated into and any exercise or training programme before participating in physical actvity
          • Raise the pulse rate by jogging or steady running
          • Stretching the main muscle groups for at least 20-30 seconds
        • It decreases the likelihood of injury and muscle soreness
        • Increases muscle temperature
          • Ready supply of energy
          • More flexible to prevent injury
        • Improves speed and strength of muscular contraction
      • The cool down
        • Removes lactic acid
        • Prevents blood pooling in veins causing dizziness
        • Gradually decreases heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and breathing rate
        • Often consists of light aerobic exercise or jogging
          • e.g. walking
          • e.g. light stretching
    • Characteristics of a skilful movement
      • Efficient
        • Not making unneccessary movements when performing a skill and its done with minimal effort
        • e.g. a basketball player will not make unneccessary movemenrt when dribbling the ball up the court
      • Predetermined
        • A performer should know what they are trying to achieve
        • e.g. a hockey player knows whereabouts she wants to hit the ball as she shoots at the goal.
      • Coordinated
        • Everything is in tind weme all linked
        • e.g. a tennis player's movement in the serve are linked together well
      • Aesthetic
        • The skill looks good when performed
        • e.g. an athlete performs the high jump with a style that is successful and looks good
      • Controlled
        • Movement is under control with the no unneccessary movement
        • e.g. a rugby player tackles without using unneccessary movement
      • Fluent
        • The skill is smooth and coordinated
        • e.g. a gymnasts floor movements are flowing and coordinted
    • Goal setting
      • Perfomance goals
        • Performance goals tend to be short term
        • Directly related to the performance or technique of the activity
          • e.g. to improve the running technique in sprinting
          • e.g. to improve technique of a front somersault in trampolining
      • Outcome goals
        • These are concerned with the end result- whether you win or lose.
          • e.g. outcome goals in netball or footall might be to win an individual game or a tournament
        • Outcome goals tend to be medium or long term
          • e.g. to win the 100 metres race in an atheletics competition
          • e.g. to finish an exercise class without stopping
    • Assesing the body's readiness for exercise
      • Health screening
        • BMI
          • A measure of body composition
          • Calculated by dividing the weight by the height, then dividing the answer by the height again.
          • The higher the BMI the more body fat is presented
          • BMI doesnt take muscle into account
            • does not apply do elderly people, pregnant people or highly trained athletes
        • Blood pressure
          • Measured by using an instrument called a sphygmoman-ometer
          • Normal blood pressure for men and woman is 120/80
        • Resting heart rate
          • Normal= 40bpm to 100bpm
            • Average for women: 75bpm
            • Average for men: 70bpm
        • Taking into account family history
          • A family history of illness or disease can indicate potential problems
            • e.g. if your parents both suffer with high blood pressure and high cholestral, you are at a higher risk of contracting hear disease
      • Cardiovascular endurance
        • Level of endurance fitness is indicated by an individuals VO2 max
        • VO2 max can be predicted via tests
          • e.g the 12 minute cooper run
          • the bleep test
      • Strength
        • Can be tested in a number of ways
          • e.g. 1 RM test -maximum weight that can be lifted at once with correct technique
          • e.g. the grip strength dynamometer -assesses strength in arm muscle
      • Speed
        • Often tested using the 30 or 40 metre sprint
      • Flexibility
        • Tested via the sit and reach test
          • Measures the lower back and hamstring flexibility
    • Components of a healthy diet
      • Fats
        • Major source of energy for performing low intensity endurance exercise
        • Either saturated or unsaturated
          • e.g. saturated fats:meat products, dairy products, cakes
          • e.g. unsaturated fats: olive oil, margarine, nuts
        • Carefully monitiored, can cause obesity
        • Protects vital organs and is crucial for cell production and control of heat loss
        • 30% of diet
      • Proteins
        • Building blocks for body tissue and are essential for repair
        • necessary for the production of haemoglobin
        • 15% of diet
        • e.g. meat, fish, egg
      • Vitamins
        • No calories, chemical compounds needed by the the body in small quantities
        • Vital in the production of energy and prevention of disease and in our metabolism
        • With the exception of vitamin D, teh body cannot produce vitamins
        • e.g. fresh fruit and vegetables
      • Minerals
        • No calories and are essential for our health
        • There are two types of minerals
          • Macro-minerals which are needed in large amounts
            • e.g. calcium, pottasium and sodium
              • Calcium can be found in milk and dairy
          • Trace, elements which are needed in very small amounts
            • e.g. iron, zinc and manganese
              • Iron can be found in meat, fish and vegetables
        • Can be lost through sweating; implications for thos who exercise- replace quickly
      • Water
        • Carries nutrients in the body and helps with the removal of waste products
        • Also important in regulating body temperature
      • Fibre
        • There is no calories in fibre and is not digested when we eat it.
        • Fibre is only found in the cell wall of plants, essential for effective bowel function
          • e.g. fruit, vegetables, cereal
        • Helps us go toilet
        • Decreases risk of bowel disease
        • 18 grams a day

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