unit 1 education - class difernces

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  • Class differences in achievement
    • cultural Deprivation
      • Language: speech codes; elaborated and restricted
        • gives Middle class the advantage they feel 'at home' in school.
      • theory that working class children are inadequately socialised and so lack the right culture
      • Bernstein is a cultural deprivation theorist
        • argues that working class pupils will fail because the school fails to teach them elaborated code
      • Myth of cultural Deprivation
        • Keddie sees it as victim blaming explanation.
          • argues that working class children are simply culturally different
            • they fail because they are put at a disadvantage by an education system dominated by the middle class values.
      • parents education
        • educated parents support achievement by encouraging
        • Bernstein and Young found that middle class mothers spend more money on educational toys, books and activities.
        • Educated parents teach their children to read, draw and paint, help with homework  and are actively involved.
        • study by Douglas found that working class parents placed less value on education
        • visited schools less often and were less likely to discuss their children's progress with children
          • as a result, their children had lower levels of motivation and achievement
      • Working class subcultures
        • the working class have different goals, beliefs, attitudes and values from the rest of society and this is why their children fail at school
      • compensatory education
        • education programmes such as pupil premium, aim higher, one to one tuition, sure start and bursary's.
    • Material Deprivation
      • Housing
        • living in temporary accommodation, resulting in constant changes of school and disrupted education
        • children in crowded homes can run a greater risk of accidents.
        • cold or damp housing can cause ill health
        • temporary accommodation can cause psychological distress, infections and accidents meaning more absences from school.
        • overcrowding can make it hard for the child to study, less room for educational activities and nowhere to do homework
      • statistics
        • nearly 90% of 'failing' schools are located in deprived areas.
        • Jan Flahery, money problems in the family are a significant factor in younger childrens non attendance at school.
        • department of education- barley a third of pupils eligible for free school meals achieve five or more GCSE's at A*-C's
      • Diet and Health
        • children from low income families were more likely to engage in fighting and temper tantrums, disrupting their school.
        • children from poorer homes are more likely to have emotional or behaviour problems, resulting in having a negative effect on the childs education.
        • Marilyn Howard notes that young people from poorer homes have lower intakes in energy , victims and minerals


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