Understudied Relationships

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  • Understudied Relationships
    • Gay and Lesbian
      • Historically, homosexual couples have been condemned or outlawed and were even classed as mentally ill
        • Kitzinger and Coyle
          • Research has moved away from pathology model and towards liberal humanerism
      • Misconceptions
        • Bee
          • Gay partnerships are more like heterosexual relationships than they are different.
        • Gay relationships are short lived and unsatisfactory. Gays are unable to commit to a relationship
          • Peplau
            • found 50% or gay men and 65% of lesbians are in a steady relationship at any one time
          • Kurdek & Schmitt
            • Level of love in all four couples was high and did not differ between them, Level of liking was similar but somewhat lower in cohabiting heterosexual couples
              • Misconception is wrong, heterosexual relationships and homosexual relationships are practically the same.
                • Outdated research with a historical bias. The definition of love is subjective. Socially sensitive area, social desirability and honesty issues
                  • Level of love in all four couples was high and did not differ between them, Level of liking was similar but somewhat lower in cohabiting heterosexual couples
                    • Misconception is wrong, heterosexual relationships and homosexual relationships are practically the same.
                      • Outdated research with a historical bias. The definition of love is subjective. Socially sensitive area, social desirability and honesty issues
          • Misconception that homosexual have different sex drives
            • Fletcher
              • Gay and straight men have higher sex drives than gay and straight women. Women are more relationship focussed,
                • Concluded many patters of sexual attitudes are more closely linked to gender than sexual orientation.
            • Blumstein and Schwartz
              • Straight, gay and lesbian relationships,70% are satisfied with the sexual activity that they have with their partner
            • Peplau
              • Homo and Hetro relationships are more long lasting if partners have similar backgrounds
            • Kurdek
              • Found satisfaction in gay and straight relationships is high when the reward of the realtionships are high and costs are low.
                • Social desirability bias may occur with the want to look happy.
        • Differences between heterosexual and homosexual relationships
          • Homosexual couples more likely to have additional sexual partners outside of the relationship
            • Blumstein & Schwartz
              • Investigated additional sex partners in couples for 10 years plus
                • Found 22% Wives, 30% Husband, 43% Lesbians, 94% Gays reported having sex with at least one person other than their partner
                • Traditional ideas are not devided in same sex relationships
        • Evaluation
          • Liberal humanist approach to homosexual relationships has helped homosexual couples to achieve equality. Overlooked important differences between gay and straight relationships
          • Research into gay relationships has deepened our mutual understanding
          • Numerous difficulties in researching homosexual relationships.Due to prejudice and discrimination. Almost impossible to find a representative sample
            • Homosexual individuals may hide sexuality, limit any personal information shared. Would bias the sample considerably to those who are extroverts and are 'out'
              • Individuals who volunteer  may be doing so to remove prejudice. May overemphasise their good relationships and under-report negatives.
          • Most research took place over ten years ago, Societies attitude has changed considerable, historical bias.
            • Has not taken into legality of relationships. Possibly marriage for homosexuals through David Camerons push. May show new information on divorce rates
          • May not be appropriate to compare gay and straight relationships.Many gay couples would not marry.
          • Very little research in bi-sexual people,
      • Electronic Relationships
        • Has revolutionised the way we speak to people. No paralanguage involved and we are dependent on just the words. We could therefore misinterperet information
        • Culnan and Markus
          • Proposed reduced cues  theory of computer mediated communication
            • Less effective that FTF communication, interaction in the development of a relationship were seen earlier in the chapter such as favoured expressions, physical attraction and abilities
        • Parks and Floyd
          • Interviewed 176 members of internet newsgroup. 61% reported forming a new personal relationship. 98% communicated directly through email, 33% phoned and 28% had used the postal system.
            • Suggesting a good way to meet people, Socialise with people can lead to more relationships,
              • Historically old, More relationships occur now due to facebook, you tube etc.
        • Rules that govern the formation of real world relationships also apply to online relationships
          • Hultin
            • We look for those similar to us, ethnic origin. Etc. If significant differences in attitude and interest was discovered, communications became short and less frequant
          • However, there are differences with how relationships form online
            • McKenna and Yael
              • Studied the formation and development of relationships who initially met on the internet. Found socially anxious people more likely to form intimate relationships on the internet. More able to express their true feelings.
                • Relationships form more easily and develop faster. End up being just as real.
                  • Individuals like each other better if they meet on the internet first. Present a more idealised version of themselves. Make internet friends and romantic friends part of their day to day social worlds.
        • Erotic Relationships
          • In reference to Mckenna and Yael,
            • Cooper and Sportolari
              • Argue internet relationships reduce the role that physical attributes play in attraction and enhances other factors such a sproximity and disclosure
                • Promotes erotic connection which stems from emotional intimacy
          • Girffiths
            • Argues electronic communication is the easiest way to meet potential new partners
          • Young
            • Ace Model, Anonynity, Conveinience, Escape
              • Two major drawbacks to online relationships, Individuals may pretend to be something they're not. Can create mistrust and confusion (Catfish)
                • Cooper
                  • People become reliant to the online relationships it becomes a detriment to their real life relationships
                  • 10 million Americans a month access 'adult' websites, 15% are addicted to cyber sex and are at greater risk of divorce and low self esteem
        • Evaluation
          • Restricted samples to how they gather research
          • Methodologically, most research has used resricted samples leading to reduced generalisability. Data is collected from the intermne
    • The closer we are to someone the more likely we are to form a relationship with them (Festinger et al)
      • Festinger et al
        • Rules that govern the formation of real world relationships also apply to online relationships
          • Hultin
            • We look for those similar to us, ethnic origin. Etc. If significant differences in attitude and interest was discovered, communications became short and less frequant
          • However, there are differences with how relationships form online
            • McKenna and Yael
              • Studied the formation and development of relationships who initially met on the internet. Found socially anxious people more likely to form intimate relationships on the internet. More able to express their true feelings.
                • Relationships form more easily and develop faster. End up being just as real.
                  • Individuals like each other better if they meet on the internet first. Present a more idealised version of themselves. Make internet friends and romantic friends part of their day to day social worlds.

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