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  • Tulving Long Term Memory
    • long term memory can be split: procedural= memory for how to do things. episodic= memory for events happened to you. Semantic= memory for facts
      • nature episodic= mental diary. semantic= mental encyclopaedia
      • time and referencing. episodic= needs time and place, dependant of time and spatial referencing. semantic= not stored with time and place, no reference to where it was learnt.
      • independence of each store. episodic= needs semantic to operate. semantic= doesn't need episodic to operate.
      • retrieval and forgetting. episodic= depends on context, retrieved if stored and encoded. semantic= doesn't depend on content, retrieval based on thoughts and overgeneralisations.
    • strengths and weaknesses
      • strength
        • HM and Clive Wearing both had brain damage affecting their episodic memory but their semantic and procedural were still intact (CW could still play piano) showing e+s are separate stores
        • Tulving performed brain scans on 6 volunteers and found that when the participants were using their episodic memory the prefrontal lobes in the brain were active compared to when ppts were using their semantic memory. supporting LTM as they are different stores because they are different areas.
      • weakness
        • Tulving himself suggested episodic memory relies on semantic going against the idea of separate stores. the differences are only described not explained
        • Zole found the medial temporal lobe is used for both semantic and episodic memories. going against LTM suggesting they are no separate stores if they are in the same part of the brain.


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