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  • Tsunamis
    • Description
      • Caused as a result of a natural primary hazard which means they are a secondary hazard
      • result of tectonic activity usually shallow focus earthquake
      • water is vertically displaced and waves move outwards as the sea floor is deformed as the earthquake strikes
      • Tsunami waves travel very fast on the open ocean but their destructive power comes from their towering heights they attain as they approach the coast
      • waves travel at 800km/h but due to enormous wave length the wave oscillation can take 20-30mins to complete a cycle of has amplitude of 1m
      • 90% occur in Pacific Basin
    • Effects depend upon:
      • height of waves & distance they have travelled
      • length of the event that causes tsuanmi
      • extent to which warnings can be given
      • coastal physical geography, both offshore and in coastal area
      • Coastal land use and population density
    • Management
      • Prediction
        • Pacific Ocean Tsunami Warning System
          • Gives an early warning
            • However no such thing in Indian Ocean due to poor wealth
        • Communiation
          • Telephones / email warnings
            • LEDC no such communication prevents prediction reaching them
      • Education
        • Local population aware of hazards in MEDC's and are taught how to respond
      • Protection
        • Buildings along coastline have preventative measures taken to lessen impact
          • walls are built perpendicular to shore so waves can go through them rather than knocking them over
          • Stilts used to allow water to run under
        • Forest planting between coastline and buildings as tress rapidly slow down waves and cause them to lose energy
          • Mangrove tress
    • Case Study: ASIA TSUNAMI BOXING DAY 2004
      • Background
        • 26th December 2004
        • Magnitude 9
        • Eurasian and Australian Plates
      • Impacts
        • 10m high waves
        • 250000 Deaths
        • Population dependent on primary livelihoods= lost everything
        • No access to clean water
        • Millions left homeless
        • Hunger and disease
        • Infrastructure destroyed
    • Case Study: JAPANESE EARTHQUAKE 2011
      • Background
        • 11th March 2011
        • Magnitude 9
        • Pacific Plate subducted beneath North Americna plate
      • Impacts
        • 15846 Deaths
        • 45700 Buildings destroyed
        • 230,000 vehicles destroyed
        • Fujinuma irrigation dam ruptured=more flooding
        • Fukushima power plant nuclear leak/ eruption
          • Present day Fukushima still a nuclear warning zone
        • Many areas left deserted due to total devastation


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