M:3 S:2 The Heart

Transport in Animals

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  • The Heart
    • External Structure
      • Diagram
    • Internal Structure
      • Diagram
    • Valves
      • Prevent the backflow of blood
      • AV valves links the atria to the ventricles
        • Valves stop the blood from flowing back into the atria when the ventricle pressure increase
        • Bicuspid
          • Left
        • Tricuspid
          • Right
      • Semi lunar valves
        • Aortic
        • Pulmonary
    • QUESTIONS
      • 2. Which chamber of the heart receives blood from the lungs
      • 1.
        • a. Which part of the cardiac cycle graph shows ...
          • ii. The atrioventricular valve closing?
          • i. The semi lunar valve opening?
        • b. Explain the cardiac cycle
    • Cardiac Cycle
      • Graph
      • 1. Ventricles relax, atria contract
        • a. Atria pressure ^ and vol decreases
        • b.  Forces blood through AV valves into ventricles
        • c. Slight increase in V pressure and vol as they receive blood
        • ATRIAL SYSTOLE
      • 2. Ventricles contract, atria relax
        • a. Vol decreases in V's and pressure ^
        • b. Pressure ^ in V than A, so AV valves shut
        • c. Pressure in V causes semi lunar valves to open
        • d. Blood forced into pulmonary artery and aorta
        • VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE
      • 3. Ventricles relax, atria relax
        • a. ^ pressure in PA and aorta = SL valves close
        • DIASTOLE
        • b. Atria fill with blood = pressure ^
          • Due to ^ pressure in vena cava and pulmonary vein
        • c. As ventricles relax, pressure falls below atria
          • AV valves open and blood flows passively into ventricles from atrira
            • 'Passively' = without contraction
      • Cardiac Output
        • Vol of blood pumped by the heart per minute
          • HR x stroke vol
            • Stroke Vol = Vol of blood pumped during each HB
    • Dissection
      • Diagram

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