Computer Science OCR Topic 7 Translators and facilities of languages

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  • Translators and facilities of languages
    • Low level languages
      • Assembly language
        • Mnemonic codes were invented
        • Processor specific
        • Must be translated to machine code before execution
      • Machine code
        • Instructions written in binary
        • Computers cannot execute instructions unless they are in machine code
        • Specific to a processor or a processor family
      • Advantages
        • Executed quickly
        • Occupies less memory
        • Can be used to manipulate/ control hardware
    • High level languages
      • Advantages
        • Easy to learn
        • Programs writen faster
        • Easier to understand/ debug
      • Statements look like english/maths
      • Use Selection and Iteration
      • Use Boolean operators, arrays and records
      • Compiler/ interpreter is used to translate to machine code
      • A single statement translates to multiple machine code instructions
    • Translators
      • Any program written in a high level language or assembly language needs to be translated into machine code before execution
      • Compiler
        • Translates whole program to object code
        • Executes faster as all code is already in machine code
        • No need for compiler to be present when running the program
        • Cannot see code once bought- cannot be copied
      • Interpreter
        • Translates and executes one line at a  time
        • Takes longer as each line must be translated before execution
        • Interpreter must be installed to run the program
        • Can see source code- can be copied
      • Assembler
        • Translates assembly code to machine code
    • IDE- integrated development environment
      • Run-time environment
        • Allows you to run the program
      • Error diagnostics
        • Detects syntax errors
      • Debug facilities
        • Helps detect logic errors by watching the values of specified variables
      • Translators
        • To translate the program into machine code
      • Editor
        • Allow programmers to write and edit code
        • Can include extra facilities e.g. colour coding, autocorrect, autocomplete and automatic indents
          • Helps improve readability of code
          • Don't usually identify errors
  • Byte code
    • Intermediate stage that can be interpreted on many processors
    • Low level languages
      • Assembly language
        • Mnemonic codes were invented
        • Processor specific
        • Must be translated to machine code before execution
      • Machine code
        • Instructions written in binary
        • Computers cannot execute instructions unless they are in machine code
        • Specific to a processor or a processor family
      • Advantages
        • Executed quickly
        • Occupies less memory
        • Can be used to manipulate/ control hardware

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