Transition metals

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  • Transition Elements
    • Definitions
      • D-block element
        • An element with its highest energy electrons in d-orbitals.
      • Transition metal
        • An element which can make ions with partially filled d-orbitals.
      • Complex ion
        • A transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligands by coordinate bonds,
      • Ligand
        • A molecule that can donate a pair of electrons to a bond with a transition metal.
      • Coordination number
        • Total number of coordination bonds
      • Ligand subsitution
        • a reaction in which one ligand in a complex ion is replaced by another.
    • Exceptions in d-block elements
      • Chromium
        • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5
      • Cobalt
        • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10
      • Scandium and Zinc
        • Scandium only forms the 3+ orbital, where all the d-orbitals are empty.
        • Zinc only forms the 2+ ions, where all d-orbitals are full.
    • PROPERTIES
      • Physical
        • shiny
        • high density
        • high melting and boiling points
        • good conductors in solid form
      • Chemical
        • Coloured compounds
        • Variable oxidation states
        • Good CATALYSTS
          • Haber process
            • Makes NH3 (ammonia) from N2 and H2
            • Uses iron as a catalyst
          • Contact Process
            • Coverts SO2 into SO3 when manufacturing H2SO4
            • Uses Vanadium (V) Oxide
          • Hydrogenation of alkenes
            • Saturates double carbon binds with hydrogen.
            • Nickel catalyst at 150 degrees
          • Decomposition of H2O2
            • Makes water and oxygen
            • Manganese (IV) Oxide
    • Precipitation reactions
      • Soluble ions mixed to make an insoluble product.
      • With hydroxides
        • Cu2+
          • Pale blue solution to pale blue precipitate
        • Co2+
          • Pale pink solution to make a blue ppt, which turns beige in air.
        • Fe2+
          • Green solution to green ppt, which goes red in air.
        • Fe3+
          • Yellow solution goes to a red ppt.
    • COMPLEX IONS
      • SHAPE
        • most common is octahedral shape.
          • 6 dative bonds
          • bond angle is 90 degrees.
          • e.g. [Fe(H2O)G]2+
      • STEREOISOMERSIM
        • TWO TYPES
          • Cis Trans
            • cis platin
              • [Ni(NH3)2(CL)2]
              • CIS isomer can be used as a cancer drug
                • Cis platin binds to DNA preventing replication, and therefore cell division. This tops tumours from growing,
              • SQUARE PLANAR SHAPE
            • CIS= same groups/ligands are on the same side or plane.
            • Trans- when the same groups are on different sides/planes
          • optical
            • non-superimposable mirror images
        • Species with the same structural formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space.
      • LIGANDS
        • Monodentate
          • Can make one coordinate bond with a transition metal ion
          • e.g H2O
        • BiDentate
          • Can make two coordinate bonds with transition metal ions
          • e.g. ethane-1,2-diamine (NH2CH2CH2NH2) or ethandioate (C2O4^2-)
        • hexadentate
          • Makes six coordinate bonds with an transition ion
          • e.g. EDTA
      • LIGAND SUBSITUTION
        • With chloride ions
          • Cu2+ goes from a pale blue solution to a yellow solution
          • Co2+ goes from a pink solution to a pale blue solution.
          • Chloride ions are bigger so usually form 4 coordinate bonds only.
        • with ammonia
          • Cu2+ gos from a pale blue solution to a light blue precipate Cu(OH2)  to a deep blue solution [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+
          • Co2+ will first form a light blue ppt (Co(OH)2) left in air to make a beige precipitate.
        • HAEMOGLOBIN
          • Haemoglobin cantains a haem grouo with has iron in it.
            • Oxygen binds to the haem group. Ligand substitution allows the oxygen to be released and obtained in appropriate circumstances (e.g. in lungs it would pick up)
        • STABILITY CONSTANTS
          • products over reactants
          • don't include water
          • The larger the stability constant, the more stable the complex.
          • don't forget units!
    • REDOX TITRATIONS
      • equations to know
        • MnO4-
          • HCl cannot be used as it reacts with MnO4-
          • +5e- + 8H+
            • Mn2+ + 4H2O
        • 2S2O3(2-)
          • thiosulphate equation!
          • + I2
            • 2I- + s4o62-
        • 2Cu2+
          • + 4I-
            • 2CuI + I2
        • Cr2O7(2-) +
          • 6e- + 14H+
            • 2Cr3+ 7H2O

Comments

8cburton

metals are shiny

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