Transition Metals

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  • Created by: OTaylor1
  • Created on: 14-04-14 12:43
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  • Transition Metals
    • Definition: A metal that can form one or more stable ions with a partially filled d-subshell.
    • Chemical Properties
      • Can form complex ions
      • Form coloured ions in solution
      • Good catalysts
      • Exist in various oxidation states
    • Complex ions
      • Definition: A metal ion surrounded by dative covalently bonded ligands.
        • Ligand: an atom, ion or molecule that donates a pair of electrons to a central metal ion.
        • Dative covalent: a covalent bond in which both electrons in a shared pair come from the same atom.
      • One ligand can be swapped for another in a reaction known as ligand substitution.
      • Ligand Reactions
        • During ligand exchange a colour change always occurs.
        • Different ligands form different strength bonds.
        • Ligand exchange reactions can be easily reversed except when the new ion is more stable than the old one.
        • When Sodium Hydroxide and Ammonia solution is added to metal aqua ions a precipitate is formed.
    • Colour
      • Complex ions absorb some frequencies of light dependent on the metal.
      • The colour of the ion is made up of all the frequencies that aren't absorbed.
    • Scandium and Zinc aren't transition metals as Scandium's only ion has no d-orbital and Zinc contains a full d-orbital even when ions form.


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