Topic 9: Control, Punishment and Victims

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  • Created on: 19-06-17 15:57
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  • Topic 9: Control, Punishment and Victims
    • Crime prevention and control
      • Situational crime prevention
        • Clarke: situational crime prevention 'relies not on improving society or its institutions, but simply on reducing oppotunities for crime'
        • Underscored by rational choice theory - e.g. Felson: in New York bus terminal removed large sinks to stop homeless washing
      • Displacement
        • Criticism: situational crime prevention only displaces crime under rational choice theory
        • Displacement: Spatial, temporal, target, tactical, and functional
      • Environmental crime prevention
        • Wilson and Kelling: 'brokn window theory' + zero tolerence policing - e.g. New York 'clean car programme'
      • Social and community crime prevention
        • Removes conditions that predispose individuals to crime in the first place - e.g poverty and unemployment
        • Perry pre-school project - intellectual enrichment programme for disprivelaged black children = every dollar spent on programe $17 was saved on welfare, prison, ect
    • Surveillance
      • Foucault: birth of the prison
        • Sovereign power: control over the body through visual punishments - e.g. amputations or branding
        • Disiplinary control: control over ones body, mind and soul through surveillance
        • The panopticon: model of prison where guards can see prisoners, but not vice versa = self-surveillance acts as reformation
        • Dispersal of disipline; spread out to other institutions - e.g. schools, factories and barracks
      • Synoptic surveillance
        • Mathiesen: 'top down centeralised surveillance' allows the many to see the few - everyone sees everyone (e.g. politicians held accountable for promises)
      • Surveillant assembiages
        • Haggerty and Ericson: now manipulates virtual objects in cyberspace + technological surveilance now combined e.g. CCTV and facial recognition
      • Actuarial justice and risk management
        • Freely and Simon: using calculations and criteras to filter possible risk - e.g. security profiling according to sex, age and class
        • Lyon: categorical suspicion - 'social sorting' allows people to deal with others according to their level of risk
      • Labelling and surveillance
        • 'Typifications' still found when seeking offenders - e.g. more likely to fcous on black people on CCTV
    • Punishment
      • Reduction
        • Preventing crime through punishment: deterrence, rehabillitation and incapacitation - instrumental response
      • Retribution
        • A form of 'paying back' - expressive response
      • Durkhiem: a functionalist perspective
        • Punishment is mainly expressive - expresses societies outrage
        • Restitutive justice - compensation and restoration to how society was = mainly instrumental but also expressive
        • Retributive justice - traditional societies vengeful desire to repress evil wrongdoer - purley expressive
      • Marxism: capitalism and punishment
        • Punishment = repressive state apparatus (e.g. hanging and transportation within colonies 17th centuary)
        • Factory and prison parallels = both have diciplinary tactics
      • Prisons
        • 2/3 prisoners commit more crime on further release
        • Carrabine: over-populated, poor sanitation, inedible food and poor educational oppotunities
        • Downes: Ideological function - soaks up 40% of unemployed, making capitalism look more successful
        • Transcarceration - cycle of institutionalisation: care, school, prison, asylum, care
    • The victims of crime
      • Positivist victimology
        • Mires: Aims to identify factors which cause patterns of victimisation, impersonal crimes of violence, and who contributes to their own victimisation
        • Elderly, mentially handicapped and women more likely + victim preitipation
      • Critical victimology
        • Aware of structual factors and how the state has the power to apply of remove the label of victim
        • Tombs and Whyte: powerless victims more likely to be victimised, but less likely to be acknowladged as this by the statw
      • Patterns of victimisation
        • Poorer, excessivley young or old, males killed and females abused
      • Impact of victimisation
        • Disturbed sleep and lack of social functioning of everyone involved (e.g. Pynoo: children witnessing sniper attack still have nightmares and behavioural alterations
        • Secondary victimisation - second attack at hands of injustice of  justice system - e.g. **** victims
        • Fear of victimisation - perpetulated in the media, especially for women and children


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