Topic 6

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  • TOPIC 6
    • Aseptic Technique
      • All equipment to be sterile
      • flame using a Bunsen burner near the workarea
        • areas should be antibacked
      • inoculation should be done with a flamed instrument
      • Lids should be replaced as quickly as possible
    • Population Size
      • 1- Lag Phase, slows growth as bacteria prepare to use the nutrients available
        • 2- :Log Phase, growth is exponential
          • 3- stationary phase, death rate equals division rate
            • 4- Death Phase, population of live cells falls reducing the population siize
      • calculation
    • Endo/Exo toxins
      • END-lipposaccharides in the membranes of  Gram negative bacteria, Salmonella spp.
      • EXO-molecules released outside of the bacterium cell, Staph. aureus
    • Invasion of host tissue
      • By entering the host tissue like TB.  can lay dormant for ears before exploding
    • Antibiotic
      • Bactericidal
        • Kill bacteria by interfering with an aspect if bacteria structure or biochemistry so it dies.
          • Panicillin
      • Bacteriostatic
        • prevent the growth and reproduction of bacteria so the population cannot grow
          • Tetracycline
      • Resistance
        • mutation which reproduces, it can be controlled by antibiotics being taken for the correct amount of time
    • Other Agents
      • Malaria
        • burst out for cell every 2-3 days, liver damage and anemia
          • liver from blood reproducing asexually
            • through female mosquito's
              • wind carries spores infecting plants fragments in soil
            • spores germinate in water, hyphae enter through stomata, enzymes digest cell walls, nutrients absorbed by fungus.
              • wind carries spores infecting plants fragments in soil
          • nutrients lost to fungus, stem weakened plant looses control over water loss
            • spores germinate in water, hyphae enter through stomata, enzymes digest cell walls, nutrients absorbed by fungus.
        • Stem Rust Fungus
          • nutrients lost to fungus, stem weakened plant looses control over water loss
          • Influenza
            • stuffy nose, headache, coughing, tiredness, vomiting
              • Cilla of lungs, viral RNA takes over cell, cell produces particles, cell lysis
                • Droplet, contact (feaces, virus, surfaces)
                  • through female mosquito's
                  • liver from blood reproducing asexually
                  • burst out for cell every 2-3 days, liver damage and anemia
                • Pathogenic Effects
                  • Infection
                    • Transmission
                      • Droplet, contact (feaces, virus, surfaces)
                      • Cilla of lungs, viral RNA takes over cell, cell produces particles, cell lysis
                      • stuffy nose, headache, coughing, tiredness, vomiting
                    • Immune Responce
                      • Humoral Immune Response
                        • Antigen presented by T cell activating T helper cell, activating B cell which becomes an antibody secreating plasma, so clonal selection can occur, producing many antibodies,.
                      • Cell mediated response
                        • Antigen presented on infected cell, T helper cells and T killer cells activate when come into contact.  Cytokines are released = inflammatory response
                      • Immunity
                        • Artificial
                          • vaccine uses antigens from pathogens in a harmless form causing a primary response.
                            • antiserum contains antibodies usually the blood of an exposed animal to inject the antigen (not long term)
                        • antiserum contains antibodies usually the blood of an exposed animal to inject the antigen (not long term)
                    • Culturing Microrganism
                      • Types
                        • Agar Plate - containing nutrient agar, a solid medium in a petri dish
                          • Conditions for growth: nutrients, temperature and pH  access to O2
                        • Selective Media - can be used to grow selective types of culture by discouraging the growth of other organisms
                          • Conditions for growth: nutrients, temperature and pH  access to O2
                      • Problems
                        • Pathogens may enter spreading disease, safe organisms may mutate into harmful ones, pathogens may enter and spoil investigation.
                      • Precautions
                        • adequate O2 supply as more encourages pathogens to grow, culture temperature 30C or below as above causes human pathogens to grow
                    • Counting Microrganism
                      • Haemocytomer: microscopic grid
                        • Dilution plating, till you can count the no of organisms
                          • Turbidity, cloudiness
                            • Dry mass, weighed culture
                  • Pathogenic Effects
                    • Infection
                      • Transmission
                    • normal response
                      • Natural
                      • Antibodies in mil
                        • Active
                        • vaccine uses antigens from pathogens in a harmless form causing a primary response.

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