topic 3

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  • Topic 3- infection and response
    • vaccination
      • when infected by new pathogen, WBC few days to deal,you = ill
      • = injecting small amounts dead/inactive pathogens in u. These carry antigens.
        • then if live pathogens infect you, WBC rapidly mass-produce, antibodies
      • pros
        • control lots of  comm. disease in UK
        • epidemics= prevented if large% pop. are vaccinated
      • cons
        • don't always work
        • bad reaction to some
    • drugs
      • painkillers relieve pain, x kill pathogens
      • antibiotics kill bacteria
        • x destroy viruses
      • resistant bacteria to antibiotics
        • the resistant bacteria survive and reproduce, to avoid resistant strains, doctors shouldn't over prescribe
          • finish whole course antibiotics
      • many from plants
        • plants produce chemical defend themselves
          • chemicals used as drugs
            • aspirin -> from willow
            • digitalis for heart conditions from fox gloves
      • some drugs from micro-organisms
      • drugs made large scale
      • developing drugs
        • tested human cells/tissues
          • test live animals
            • toxicity/ efficacy/ dosage
            • human volunteers clinical trial
              • double blind, 1 group placebo, 1 group new drug
    • monoclonal antibodies
      • diagram
      • if pregnant
        • if not pregnant
        • treat diseases
          • in labs
            • test blood samples
            • locate specific molecules on cell
            • MA made to bind to spec. mols
              • MA bound to fluorescent dye
                • if mols present MA attach and you see dye
              • problems with MA
                • side effects vomit, fever
                  • not widely used
    • plants
      • need mineral ions from soil
        • nitrates to make proteins, to grow
        • magnesium ions for making chlorophyll
      • disease
        • viral/ bacterial /fungal
        • signs
          • stunted / abnormal growth. spots/ decay
          • infestation of pests
          • use testing kit
      • physical defences
        • waxy cuticle
        • layers of dead cells around stem
        • cell walls
      • mechanical
        • thorns
        • mimic
        • droop or curl
      • chemical
        • poisons/ antibacterial

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