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  • The nature of memory: Capacity and encoding
    • Capacity of short-term memory
      • The capacity of STM can be assessed by using digit span technique.
        • Joseph Jacobs (1887)
      • Increasing the capacity of STM
        • The magic bumber 7 add or minus 2.
        • The size of chunk matters.
          • The size of the chunk affect how many chunks you can remember.
          • Simon (1974)
        • George MIller (1956)
      • The capacity of STM may be even more limited.
        • Cowan (2001)
        • Vogel et al. (2001)
    • Encoding in STM and LTM
      • We can compare the ways information is stored in STM and LTM in terms of the encoding of the memory.
        • Acoustic coding involves coding information in terms of the way it sounds.
        • Semantic coding involves coding informatio in terms of its meaning.
        • Baddeley (1966a and 1966b)
      • LTM and STM may sometimes use other codes.
        • In general, STM appears to rely on an acoustic code for storing information.
          • However, some experiments have shown that visual codes are also used in STM.
            • Brandimote et al (1992)
            • Wickens et al. (1976)
        • Research has also shown that encoding in LTM is not exclusively semantic.
          • Frost (1972)
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