The Lungs

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  • Created by: ashleigh
  • Created on: 12-01-15 18:06
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  • The Lungs
    • Inspiration
      • 5. this requires energy as it is an active process
        • 4. air is forces in
          • 3. Thorax volume increases andlung pressure decreases
            • 2. rib cage moves upwards and outwards and diaphragm flattens
              • 1. Intercostal muscles and diaphragm contract
    • Expiration
      • 5. does not require energy- not an active process
        • 4. air is pushed out
          • 3. thorax volume decreases and lung pressure increases
            • 2. rib cage moves inwards and downwards and diaphragm curves again
              • 1. intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax
    • Alveoli
      • Large number of them in the lungs- big surface area for exchange of gases
      • surrounded by a network of capilaries
      • O2 diffuses out over the alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium into the haemoglobin in the blood
      • CO2 diffuses into the alveoli from the blood.
      • How are they adapted for gas exchange?
        • Thin exchange surface area- ONe cell thick for faster diffusion rate
        • A large number= large surface area for gas exchange
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    • Pulmonary ventilation
      • Tidal volume x ventilation rate
    • Lung disorders
      • Asthma
        • Allergens are inhaled
        • Stimulate muscles in bronchioles to constrict airways
        • More mucus secreted- further constriction.
        • as a result- smaller vol of air so less O2 in blood
      • Pulmonary Fibrosis
        • caused by inhaling fine dust over a long period of time
        • fine dust gets into aleveoli macrophages and engulfs them they sstimulate fibrous tissues to form into fibrous nodules
        • effects lungs ability to expand and recoil, so breathing is ashallow, tissues dont recieved as much O2
      • Emphysema
        • Usually caused by smoking
        • stimulates white blood cells to produce digestive enzymes that break down alveoli walls so there are less of them
        • Less surface area for gas exchange- less O2 in blood and not enough for tissues to respire, less energy available
      • Tuberculosis
        • Caused by bacterium
        • SpSpreads in the air- aerosol
        • Coughing, chest pains, fever can be treat with antibiotics but bacteria can remain in the body for months/ yeards
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      • Lung Cancer
        • Strong correlation between lung cancer and smoking


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