The cognitive approach

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  • The cognitive approach
    • Maladaptive behaviour is caused by faulty and irrational thinking
    • assumptions
      • behaviour is influenced by schemata
      • the Schemata developed on the bias of early experience thinking
        • traumatic or negative experiences may lead to the development of a negative schemata
        • negative schemata leads to negative automatic thoughts
          • negative automatic thoughts can be explained by the cognitive bias which creates a negative outlook on life
            • minimisation
              • successes are supressed eg a good exam would be put down to luck on the day
            • maximisation
              • exaggerating the smallest of failures
                • eg failing to complete a word search
            • selective abstraction
              • focusing on the negative aspects of life and not seeing the bigger picture
                • eg messing up a question in an exam and thinking that you've messed up the whole paper
    • because widely accepted after computers created models of how the brain  might work to back it up
    • Beck's model of depression
      • this involves three negative schema
        • negative view of self
          • 'im incompetent  and undeserving'
        • Negative view of the world
          • 'the world is a terrible place'
        • negative view of the future
          • 'problems will always cause me emotional pain'
        • the negative triad
      • attributions
        • our interpretations to why things happen
        • internal- person blames their seld
        • external- person blames those around them
        • stable- things will always be this way
        • unstable- things will change and might even get better
        • global- this failure can be applied to all other situations
        • this failure can only be applied to this situation
    • Ellis's ABC model
      • activating agent
        • eg a spider
      • beliefs
        • rational - spider is harmless
        • irrational- spider is a threat
      • consequences
        • undesirable emotions- fear
          • undesirable behaviour- runs away from the spider
        • desirable emotions- no change in emotion
          • desirable behaviour
            • carry on around the spider
    • evaluation
      • the idea for schemata and how it develops is vague and lacks detail
      • takes no account foe biological or genetic factors
      • in some disorders the maladaptive behaviour is a consequence not a cause eg depression
      • depressive realism
        • negative thoughts and beliefs can be a rational reflection of reality rather than irrational or maladaptive thoughts
      • Focuses o current thoughts, doesn't go into the unconscious and bring back difficult memories
      • due to an individuals faulty thinking which empowers them to do something about it and take control
        • can place unfair blame on the individual eg with depressive realism


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